# 認知負荷

## 量度方法

• 問卷，研究者可以喺實驗後或者途中要求受試者答 9 分做滿分，自己受嘅認知負荷有幾勁[5]
• 生理量度，一般認為腦活動（睇埋事件相關電位）同眼活動（斬眼有幾快同瞳孔嘅放大）等都能夠反映認知負荷[1]
• 次要作業表現，俾受試者同時做另一件比較無關痛癢嘅作業（例：數熒幕嘅另一邊有幾多次有粒星閃過），如果受試者真係集中精神做件主要作業，佢喺呢件次要作業嘅表現應該會差[6]

## 分類

${\displaystyle {\text{Cognitive load}}=I+E+G}$
${\displaystyle I}$  代表本質負荷（intrinsic load），即係件作業本身嘅複雜性所造成嘅負荷。
${\displaystyle E}$  代表外來負荷（extraneous load），即係指因為要理解件作業所造成嘅負荷；呢個數值喺教育學上好取決於個老師教得好唔好－一個好嘅老師理應要能夠為學習者提供清楚易明嘅指示，令 ${\displaystyle E}$  嘅數值有咁細得咁細。
${\displaystyle G}$  係指相關負荷（germane load），指個認知系統一路做件作業一路處理同重組基模（schema；簡單講就係一路做一路學習）造成嘅負荷。

## 參考文獻

• Barrett, H. C.; Frederick, D.; Haselton, M.; Kurzban, R. (2006). "Can manipulations of cognitive load be used to test evolutionary hypotheses?" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 91 (3): 513–518. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.583.7931. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.3.513. PMID 16938033. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08.
• Cooper, G. (1990). "Cognitive load theory as an aid for instructional design". Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 6 (2): 108–113. doi:10.14742/ajet.2322. Archived from the original on 2002-10-28.]
• Plass, J.L.; Moreno, R.; Brünken, R., eds. (2010). Cognitive Load Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521677585.
• Sweller, J. (1994). "Cognitive Load Theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design". Learning and Instruction. 4 (4): 295–312. doi:10.1016/0959-4752(94)90003-5.
• Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camberwell, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. ISBN 978-0-86431-312-6.

## 攷

1. Plass, J.L.; Moreno, R.; Brünken, R., eds. (2010). Cognitive Load Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
2. Frein, Scott T.; Jones, Samantha L.; Gerow, Jennifer E. (November 2013). "When it comes to Facebook there may be more to bad memory than just multitasking". Computers in Human Behavior. 29 (6): 2179–2182.
3. Fink, A., & Neubauer, A. C. (2001). Speed of information processing, psychometric intelligence, and time estimation as an index of cognitive load. Personality & Individual Differences, 30, 1009–1021.
4. Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1994). Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 51–71.
5. Gopher, D., & Braune, R. (1984). On the psychophysics of workload: Why bother with subjective measures? Human Factors, 26, 519–532.
6. van Merriënboer, J. J. G, Schuurman, J. G., de Croock, M. B. M., & Paas, F. (2002). Redirecting learners’ attention during training: Effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training. Learning and Instruction, 12, 11–39.