瓢蟲

(由金龜 (蟲)跳轉過嚟)

Wikipedia:點樣睇生物分類框How to read a taxobox
瓢蟲
一隻典型嘅七星瓢蟲
一隻典型嘅七星瓢蟲
物種分類
動物界 Animalia
節足動物門 Arthropoda
昆蟲綱 Insecta
甲蟲目 Coleoptera
亞目 (Subordo): 多食亞目 Polyphaga
瓢蟲科 Coccinellidae

瓢蟲粵拼piu1 cung4英式英文ladybird美式英文ladybug / lady beetle學名Coccinellidae,即係拉丁文入面「鮮紅」噉解[1]),廣州香港又有叫金龜,係一好常見嘅細隻甲蟲。全世界已知嘅瓢蟲品種總共有超過 6,000 種咁多[2],而且佢哋分佈廣泛,喺所有熱帶溫帶種得到農作物嘅地區-包括嶺南地區同英格蘭等地在內-都會見到佢哋嘅蹤影[3]

瓢蟲有獨特易認嘅外形:佢哋通常係 0.8 到 18 毫米(0.03 到 0.71 )長,喺外觀上最樣眼嘅特徵係身體圓碌碌噉形,喺背脊嗰度有色水好鮮艷嘅翼鞘-瓢蟲嘅背脊通常係或者紅色做底兼且帶有黑色斑點或者條紋嘅,而同埋觸角就多數係黑鼆鼆噉嘅色,亦都有一部份瓢蟲品種係色水冇咁樣眼嘅,例如十二斑褐菌瓢蟲Vibidia duodecimguttata)就係背脊啡色底帶有白色斑點嘅[4][5]

多數品種嘅瓢蟲都屬益蟲:對農夫嚟講,瓢蟲通常都係佢哋樂於見到嘅生物;噉係因為瓢蟲係食肉嘅,會食一啲細隻嘅食草昆蟲(例如係蚜蟲),而瓢蟲食嗰啲食草昆蟲當中好多都係會食同破壞農作物嘅-所以瓢蟲間接幫手保護咗好多農作物,對農夫有利[3][6];不過,亦有部份品種嘅瓢蟲係害蟲,好似係食植瓢蟲Epilachninae)呢個嘅瓢蟲噉,佢哋係食草嘅-會食走薯仔等農作物嘅,當佢哋啲天敵數量減少嗰陣時,呢啲品種嘅瓢蟲數量會突然暴增,對農作物可以造成嚴重損害[7][8]

名嘅詞源

瓢蟲嘅現代英文名源自古代歐洲人嘅信仰:喺遠古嘅歐洲北歐神話當中負責掌管土地肥沃嘅女神芙蕾雅(Freyja)成日俾人描繪成同瓢蟲有啦掕[9];而喺 4 世紀打後,歐洲人慢慢改信基督教,唔再拜啲舊嘅天神,但仲係好興攞啲基督教人物嚟做天神嘅代替品,而好多歐洲人就揀咗聖母瑪利亞嚟做芙蕾雅嘅代替品,將聖母描繪成同瓢蟲有啦掕;多種歐洲語言對瓢蟲嘅嗌法都反映咗呢樣嘢-挪威文嘅「marihøne」同埋德文嘅「marienkäfer」都係指瓢蟲,而且字面解都係「瑪利亞隻雀」噉解[10],而英文嘅當中嘅「ladybird」意思係指「Our Lady's Bird」,即係「我哋嘅高貴夫人隻雀仔」(「高貴夫人」係指緊聖母)噉解[11][12];亦有啲歐洲語言直接話瓢蟲係屬於上帝嘅,例如係愛爾蘭文當中嘅「bóín Dé」、俄羅斯文嘅「божья коровка」(bozhya korovka)以及係波蘭文嘅「boża krówka」等嘅詞都係指瓢蟲,而且字面上解都係「上帝隻牛仔」噉嘅意思[13]

另一方面,希伯來文依地文呢兩種猶太人語言又受咗俄文同波蘭文等嘅斯拉夫語言影響,鍾意嗌瓢蟲做「摩西隻牛仔」或者「摩西隻馬仔」[14]。總體嚟講,歐洲人嘅語言顯示,佢哋對瓢蟲嘅態度相當正面,甚至仲有少少覺得呢種蟲係神聖嘅[15]

形態

 
一隻瓢蟲嘅基本身體構造圖

成蟲

瓢蟲成蟲最易認嘅外形特徵係佢哋嘅背脊:多數品種嘅瓢蟲身體都係圓頂或者橢圓頂噉嘅形狀嘅;佢哋嘅背脊由翼鞘(elytron;甲蟲當中常見、硬化咗嘅前翼,可以起到裝甲嘅作用)覆蓋,而翼鞘嘅款就視品種而定-好多品種嘅瓢蟲嘅翼鞘色水都好鮮艷,會係紅、黃或者橙呢啲樣眼嘅顏色[註 1],亦有唔少品種嘅瓢蟲啲翼鞘係黑、深灰、灰或者啡呢啲比較暗淡嘅色水,而視乎品種,一隻瓢蟲嘅翼鞘上嘅樣式可以係黑點、黑間條甚至係純色,又有啲瓢蟲品種會係背脊深色過啲斑點嘅;最常見嘅瓢蟲品種七星瓢蟲(seven-spotted ladybird)係背脊紅橙色而且有七粒黑點(七星)嘅-一粒喺頭對上、身體左右兩邊各三粒,而十二斑褐菌瓢蟲Vibidia duodecimguttata)就出名係背脊啡色底(比較暗淡)帶有白色斑點(斑點色水淺過底色)嘅[2][4]

除此之外,瓢蟲成蟲嘅外觀同第啲昆蟲基本上大同小異:同第啲昆蟲一樣,瓢蟲身體分同埋三橛,有六條髀,啲髀生喺胸部嗰度;同主流甲蟲相似嘅係,瓢蟲嘅胸同腹由硬淨嘅翼鞘覆蓋住(由背脊睇望落身體得兩橛);多數品種嘅瓢蟲成蟲嘅頭、髀同埋觸角都係黑鼆鼆噉嘅色嘅,身長就係喺 0.8 到 18 毫米(0.03 到 0.71 吋)之間[4]

隨年紀嘅變化

「一隻瓢蟲背脊嘅款同佢嘅歲數有關」係一個常見嘅誤解:有好多人都以為一隻瓢蟲背脊上嘅斑點數量表示佢嘅歲數;不過事實上,一個品種嘅瓢蟲背脊上嘅花紋同色水係取決於佢哋嘅基因嘅,亦都有少少可能會隨住佢哋長大而改變,但喺絕大多數品種嘅瓢蟲入面,一隻成年瓢蟲背脊嘅花紋同色水喺佢由個捐咗幾日之內,就會完全成形同唔再改變,而且有啲瓢蟲品種嘅背脊花紋同色水係喺隻成蟲由個蛹嗰度捐出嚟嗰一刻經已定死咗冇得變嘅[16][17]

蛋同幼蟲

瓢蟲蛋係瓢蟲生命週期嘅第一階段:喺交配咗之後,隻瓢蟲乸就會搵地方生蛋,瓢蟲乸通常會將蛋生喺一啲植物上面,一竇生 10 至 50 粒(呢個數字可以視品種而有異);呢啲植物上面容易有蚜蟲等嘅食草昆蟲出沒,令啲幼蟲一出世就有嘢食,而亦有報告指瓢蟲乸會特登生啲冇受精嘅蛋落嚟,等啲幼蟲出世可以攞呢啲冇受精嘅蛋做糧食[18]。瓢蟲蛋顏色好多變,由黃同紅至全白嘅都有,不過共通點係通常高得嚟幼細(形狀似米粒),多數 1 毫米左右咁長,而且一竇嘅蛋會緊密噉黐埋一齊[19][20]

瓢蟲係一種完全變態嘅昆蟲,所以幼蟲喺外形上同成蟲好唔同:瓢蟲嘅幼蟲通常係 1.2 厘米(0.5 英寸)長左右,身體幼長而且有刺,色水可變不過多數係深色底並且有紅、橙同白等色嘅間條。瓢蟲嘅幼蟲期通常會維持兩至三個禮拜,然後隻幼蟲就會搵樖植物,再黐喺上面結成,蛹會喺幾日至個零禮拜之內變成有生殖能力嘅成蟲[21]

生物學研究

食乜

多數瓢蟲品種都係肉食性動物,主要靠食啲細隻過佢哋嘅昆蟲維生:瓢蟲最多人識嘅一樣特徵就係佢係胸喙亞目Sternorrhyncha)呢類昆蟲嘅天然獵食者,胸喙亞目包括咗蚜蟲同埋介殼蟲呢啲會破壞農作物嘅害蟲;除咗噉,瓢蟲有陣時仲會食某啲細隻過佢哋嘅昆蟲或者一啲類似昆蟲嘅生物,好似係 Stethorus 呢個屬嘅細隻黑色瓢蟲噉,就會獵食同埋歐洲粟米蟲(European corn borer)-後者係一種飛蛾同埋一種嚴重嘅害蟲,對農作物嘅破壞力極之強,搞到啲農夫要揼好多錢嚟對付佢哋,年年都搞到美國嘅農業有成過億美元嘅損失[22]。整體嚟講,瓢蟲對好多種害蟲嘅控制都好緊要,亦都因為噉好受農夫歡迎[23][24],有唔少會專門食害蟲嘅瓢蟲品種都會俾人攞嚟做生物害蟲防治嘅工作[25]

體型大啲嘅瓢蟲會食第啲昆蟲嘅幼蟲,包括毛蟲同第啲甲蟲嘅幼蟲,甚至乎係同類嘅幼蟲:Coleomegilla 呢個屬嘅瓢蟲會食某啲飛蛾嘅蛋同幼蟲[26];瓢蟲又會食第啲瓢蟲品種嘅蛋同幼蟲,有啲瓢蟲品種甚至會食同類嘅蛋同幼蟲,後者呢種情況喺嘢食少嗰陣零舍有可能會發生[23][27]

廿世紀嘅昆蟲學家本來以為多數品種嘅瓢蟲係純粹嘅肉食性動物,但家陣學界已經清楚知道佢哋查實冚唪唥都係一定程度上雜食嘅:昆蟲學家做咗研究,睇瓢蟲嘅肚入面有啲乜,佢哋喺瓢蟲肚裏面搵到好多花粉花蜜樹汁同埋多種嘅真菌等等唔係肉嘅嘢[28][29]

有一部份嘅瓢蟲係以非動物嘅來源做主食嘅:食植瓢蟲Epilachninae)呢個嘅瓢蟲就出咗名有好多草食性嘅品種,呢啲草食性嘅食植瓢蟲品種會食植物嘅,可以對農作物造成威脅,因而俾人視為害蟲[7];亦都有啲瓢蟲品種(Coccinellinae 呢個屬嘅某啲品種)係專食真菌[30]

驚乜

 
一隻瓢蟲喺度反射性流血。

瓢蟲喺食物鏈(food chain)當中嘅位置並唔高。佢哋嘅主要天敵雀鳥,而大隻啲嘅肉食性昆蟲(例如係黃蜂蜻蜓)仲有係青蛙蜘蛛都會捕食瓢蟲。因為噉,瓢蟲要有好多橋保護自己[31]

  • 好多瓢蟲品種身體都具有鮮艷色水,而自然界入面有好多有毒嘅動物都係色水鮮艷嘅,於是瓢蟲嘅身體色彩好多時就會令(曾經因為食鮮色動物而中毒作嘔嘅)獵食者因為諗起嗰啲有毒動物而唔開胃-呢種現象就係所謂嘅警戒作用(aposematism);
  • 另外,瓢蟲當中有好多又曉反射性流血(reflex bleeding)-即係一感覺到某啲強勁嘅力(例如一隻獵食者嘅攻擊)就即刻反射性噉由佢哋啲甲嘅罅之間釋放一啲化合物出嚟,呢啲化合物有陣難聞嘅除或者有毒,會搞到獵食者唔開胃;
  • 除此之外,好多品種嘅瓢蟲係一受到攻擊嗰陣就會唔郁扮死,呢種行為亦都幫助到瓢蟲脫離危險;

... 等等。

 
一大群瓢蟲聚喺樖樹上面過冬。

過冬

住喺溫帶氣候嘅瓢蟲有能力越冬(overwinter),而唔係好似好多昆蟲噉,喺秋天生完蛋就死:呢啲瓢蟲喺冬天嗰陣興進入休眠(diapause),身體嘅發育減慢,令身體需要用嘅能量少咗,對嘢食嘅需求就跟住下降;有啲瓢蟲品種仲會成大羣噉齊齊飛去啲高嘅地方-例如係山上面,再喺啲大嚿嘅嘢(好似係呀噉)上面一大羣聚埋一堆過冬,一發覺日頭開始變長(日頭變長係春天嘅跡象)就散開。因為瓢蟲有能力越冬,所以一到咗春天,瓢蟲通常都會係其中一種最先出現返嘅昆蟲[32][33]

喺美國,瓢蟲通常一到咗秋天就會離開佢哋夏天嗰陣搵食嘅地頭-即係田野、森林同埋花園等有細隻草食性昆蟲嘅地方-並且搵地方過冬,亦都會開始喺好似室內呢啲比較暖嘅地方出沒;一般嚟講,當過咗一段涼涼地嘅日子之後,如果有某個晏晝嘅後半橛嘅氣溫回升到去華氏 60 零度(大約攝氏 18 度)嗰陣,啲瓢蟲就好興會大舉噉湧上去或者入去一啲有太陽照住嘅建築物嗰度,呢種事喺美國嘅 9 月到 11 月成日都發生,尤其係喺啲田野或者森林附近嘅建築物零舍容易受瓢蟲入侵。呢種現象對一般市民嚟講可以係大麻煩-某啲品種嘅瓢蟲「一覺得自己受威脅就釋放有味化合物」嘅習性可以搞到室內有陣難聞嘅除[34][35]

生命週期

瓢蟲由個蛹捐咗出嚟之後就係成蟲,有生殖能力。一隻瓢蟲乸通常會同好幾隻瓢蟲公交配,交配過後,啲瓢蟲乸就會去搵地方生蛋,獵食性嘅瓢蟲興喺佢哋啲獵物食嗰啲植物上面生蛋,等佢哋啲幼蟲一出世就有獵物可以食;異色瓢蟲(Asian ladybeetle)呢個全世界都有嘅瓢蟲品種生起蛋上嚟一竇生幾粒至幾打不等,而啲蛋會喺三至四日之內孵出嚟。視乎資源有幾豐富,啲幼蟲會喺 10 至 14 日之後就經過嗮四次嘅形態改變,跟手就結蛹。一隻瓢蟲能夠越冬,平均可以有一至兩年命[36]

順帶一提,某啲品種嘅瓢蟲嘅乸喺生蛋嗰陣,會將一啲冇受精嘅蛋生喺啲受咗精嘅蛋隔離左近嗰度,佢哋噉樣做似乎係要等佢哋啲仔有啲後備嘢食-而事實係,研究發現咗啲瓢蟲乸喺四圍環境嘢食愈少嗰陣時就愈會用呢種策略[18]

禍患

 
一隻異色瓢蟲;佢哋散佈到周圍都係,搞到唔少生態專家好擔心。

一般嚟講,肉食性嘅瓢蟲品種俾人視為一種益蟲:瓢蟲唔會好似某啲昆蟲噉用帶有毒液嘅針拮人,而且亦都唔會點帶有傳染病,所以基本上冇可能會對人嘅生命構成乜嘢威脅[註 2][37];不過喺某啲情況之下,瓢蟲能夠為人帶嚟不便,例如:

  • 喺冬天,瓢蟲可能會一大羣噉湧入室內呢啲暖嘅地方,而佢哋一旦因為覺得受威脅而釋放有味物質,可以搞到人屋裏面有一大陣除;而呢點可能會對房屋造成破壞同埋搞到房屋嘅價值下降[34][35]
  • 瓢蟲污染(ladybird taint)係葡萄酒釀製上嘅一個現象,指提子收割嗰陣咁啱有瓢蟲喺左近,搞到用嚟釀酒嘅提子夾雜咗啲瓢蟲喺入面-呢啲瓢蟲跟住就好可能會喺用提子釀酒嘅過程當中走咗入去酒嗰度,雖然啲人通常唔會覺得瓢蟲好似某啲昆蟲噉令人作嘔,但佢哋一驚就釋放有味物質嘅習性可以搞到啲酒變味[38][39]

... 等等。

異色瓢蟲

內文: 異色瓢蟲

異色瓢蟲(Asian ladybeetle;學名:Harmonia axyridis)係一種源於東亞嘅瓢蟲,但後嚟俾人帶到去全世界,引起生態學界嘅關注:異色瓢蟲係喺 1910 年代嗰陣俾人由東亞引入去北美洲嗰度,用嚟對付蚜蟲嘅,但異色瓢蟲打後係噉繁殖,數量增長得好犀利,好快砌低嗮啲本地瓢蟲品種,做咗最勁嘅瓢蟲-有好幾份喺多個美國州份做嘅研究發現,異色瓢蟲喺廿世紀期間搞到多個美國本土嘅瓢蟲品種數量急降,當中有本土品種嘅蟲口數量仲跌咗成 20 倍咁多[40];由嗰陣時開始,異色瓢蟲仲散佈咗去西歐,喺 2004 年到咗英國[41],2017 年佢哋仲喺南非落埋腳[42]。喺某啲地區,異色瓢蟲係有少少好似害蟲噉嘅存在-雖然唔少農夫都因為異色瓢蟲嘅強勁獵食能力而覺得高興,但異色瓢蟲砌低嗮啲本地異色瓢蟲品種,搞到啲生態學專家擔心佢哋會引致生物多樣性(biodiversity)下降[43][44]

文化影響

一隻俾主人打扮到好似一隻瓢蟲噉嘅樣。
呢柞杯仔蛋糕上面有整到好似瓢蟲噉形嘅

瓢蟲喺人類文化當中形象普遍都係正面嘅:瓢蟲多數品種都係幫手保護植物嘅益蟲,廣受農夫同玩園藝嘅人歡迎[45];加上佢哋五顏六色噉又細細隻,令到唔少人都覺得佢哋好得意[46],鍾意影佢哋嘅相[47]。世界上仲有好多個地方嘅人傳統上都覺得瓢蟲係好運嘅象徵,例如係土耳其噉,土耳其文係嗌瓢蟲做「uğur böceği」嘅,呢個字字面上係「行運蟲」噉解,而喺多個地區-包括俄羅斯意大利同土耳其-都有民間傳說話一旦有瓢蟲出現就要即刻許返個願,又或者話瓢蟲出現係願望成真嘅預兆[48]

聖母傳說

瓢蟲嘅英式英文名「ladybird」據講源於一個天主教傳說:根據呢個傳說,喺中世紀嗰陣曾經有一大羣細隻昆蟲(啲人估係蚜蟲)喺歐洲出現,呢柞昆蟲橫掃全歐洲,周圍食嗮啲農作物,搞到歐洲有陷入饑荒嘅危險;喺呢個時候,絕望嘅農夫向聖母瑪利亞祈禱,求聖母拯救佢哋;及後,有一羣背脊橙紅色帶有斑點嘅昆蟲出現,食嗮嗰班喺度破壞農作物嘅細蟲,化解咗呢場糧食危機。而深信呢件事係聖母顯靈嘅基督徒農夫就將呢啲橙紅色帶斑點嘅昆蟲改名做「Our Lady's Bird」-意思係「我哋嘅高貴夫人(指聖母)嘅雀仔」噉解,後嚟簡稱做「ladybird」[12][49]

兒歌

睇埋:Ladybird Ladybird

瓢蟲嘅得意形象令到世界各地嘅細路仔都興唱同佢哋有關嘅兒歌。例如係出名嘅英文兒歌《Ladybird Ladybird》噉:

Ladybird, ladybird, fly away home
Your house is on fire and your children are gone
All except one, and that's Little Anne
For she has crept under the warming pan.

呢首兒歌嘅人氣高到俾人譯埋過去德文嗰度,成為咗《Marienwürmchen》,仲俾人收錄咗喺《少年魔法號角》(德文:Des Knaben Wunderhorn)-一本好出名嘅德國民謠集-入面。喺德國東面嘅波蘭都譯咗首兒歌過去,而且首兒歌嘅歌詞(同啲歌詞嘅變種)仲成為咗波蘭文入面嘅諺語[50]

圖庫

一隻瓢蟲喺一個蟻竇附近活動嘅影片;瓢蟲同蟻之間嘅關係並唔友好-蚜蟲嘅身體會分泌一啲特殊液體,呢啲分泌物對蟻嚟講係糧食,所以蟻好多時會養蚜蟲(原理就好似人養生產牛奶噉),仲會因為想保護蚜蟲而同瓢蟲打交[51][52]

註釋

  1. 啲人成日都覺得「色水鮮艷又有斑點嘅甲蟲」等同「瓢蟲」,但實際上,要決定一隻昆蟲係咪瓢蟲係要睇佢基因,而唔係齋睇樣嘅-「色水鮮艷又有斑點」只不過係喺瓢蟲之間常見嘅一個特徵。
  2. 不過,有部份人喺俾瓢蟲咬親嗰陣會有過敏反應,出現唞氣有困難或者係噉流鼻水等唔舒服嘅症狀。

睇埋

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