營銷組合marketing mix)係市場學上嘅概念,指「幫一件產品做市場有乜嘢要考慮」。喺傳統嘅營銷組合上,想幫自己產品搵市場嘅生意人有四大因素要考慮[1][2]

  • 產品(product):指件產品本身嘅特性以及件產品能夠滿足乜嘢需要(產品梗要滿足到某啲需要先會有人買)[3]
  • 價錢(pricing):指件產品賣幾多錢;諗價錢嘅過程當中要估消費者肯出幾多錢買,會用到需求同供應同相關嘅概念;
  • 地方(place):指件產品要點送到去啲客嘅手上,可以涉及地理方面嘅考量;
  • 宣傳(promotion):指點樣確保消費者知件產品存在同埋「件產品能夠滿足到佢哋需要」呢件資訊[4][5]

諗好嗮呢啲嘢之後,幫件產品做市場嘅人就可以決定佢哋套營銷策略[6][7]

擴展

內文:擴展營銷組合

4P 營銷組合喺廿世紀嘅市場學界好有影響力,不過由廿世紀尾開始,就有唔少嘅市場學專家開始覺得淨係諗嗰四大因素根本就唔夠,主張營銷除咗產品、價錢、分銷同埋宣傳之外仲有好多緊要嘅因素要考慮;於是廿一世紀初嘅市場學界就有開始喺度諗要點樣擴展傳統嘅營銷組合模型。呢啲包含嗰四大因素以外嘅營銷組合模型就係所謂嘅擴展營銷組合(extended marketing mix)[8][9]。廿一世紀初多人提嘅擴展營銷組合元素有以下呢啲:

  • (people)
  • 過程(process)
  • 物理證據(physical evidence)

... 呀噉。

  1. McCarthy, Jerome E. (1964). Basic Marketing. A Managerial Approach. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
  2. Hester, Brittany (9 April 2019). "Marketing Strategy: Forget the 4 P'S! What are the 4 C'S?". CATMEDIA Internal Communication.
  3. Stanton, William J. (1984). Fundamentals of marketing. McGraw-Hill.
  4. Market Research is a subset of Marketing Research "Difference Between Market & Marketing Research".
  5. Julie Bosman (10 March 2006). "For Tobacco, Stealth Marketing Is the Norm". The New York Times.
  6. Hunt, Shelby D. (July 1976). "The Nature and Scope of Marketing". Journal of Marketing. 40 (3): 17–28.
  7. Bagozzi, Richard P. (October 1975). "Marketing as Exchange". Journal of Marketing. 39 (4): 32–39.
  8. Gareth, Morgan (1988). Riding the Waves of Change. Jossey-Bass.
  9. Constantinides, E., "The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing," Journal of Marketing Management, Vo. 22, 2006, pp. 407-38.