簡單機械

概論

• 槓桿（lever），指一條剛硬[註 2]、其中一個點以某啲方式固定咗嘅長條。如果有股力施落去枝槓桿嘅其中一端，另外一端就會有股向相反方向嘅力。現實例子有單車手柄－一個踩單車嘅人能夠用手施力落去個手柄度，令到單車嘅前轆轉向。
• 輪軸（wheel and axle）由一個同一條組成，呢兩個元件之間通常靠啤令或者接住，當枝軸轉嗰陣，個轆就會跟住轉。現實例子有車轆同埋多種嘅交通工具嘅轆。
• 滑輪（pulley），指用個轆嚟帶動或者等嘅長條，當個轆旋轉嗰時，能夠令到接駁咗喺條繩或者纜上面嘅物體郁動－由旋轉嘅力嗰度產生直線嘅郁動。現實例子有纜車嘅絞盤筒－喺纜車行駛嘅兩個點嘅尾端嗰度各有一個滑輪帶動一條鋼纜，而當兩個滑輪旋轉嗰時，吊喺條鋼纜上嘅列車就會跟住郁[7]
• 斜面即係打斜咗嘅平面，可以幫人用少啲力將一件物體由低位移上去高位嗰度。
• （wedge），橫切面形狀呈三角形，一邊闊一邊尖，兩個側邊都係斜面。當尖嗰面撞落去一樣嘢嗰度，就比較容易將樣嘢破開兩邊。斧頭嘅頭就係一個典型嘅楔[8]
• 螺旋係指一枝有螺旋條紋嘅桿，當枝桿旋轉嗰陣，就會令成枝桿向前或者向後郁－將旋轉嘅力轉做以直線施嘅力。螺絲就係一個典型嘅螺旋[9]

註釋

1. 雖然佢心目中嘅輪軸概念同現代嘅有啲唔同。
2. 睇埋剛體

攷

1. Strizhak, Viktor; Igor Penkov; Toivo Pappel (2004). "Evolution of design, use, and strength calculations of screw threads and threaded joints". HMM2004 International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms. Kluwer Academic publishers. p. 245.
2. Moon, F. C., The Reuleaux Collection of Kinematic Mechanisms at Cornell University, 1999.
3. Hartenberg, R.S. & J. Denavit (1964) Kinematic synthesis of linkages. Engineering Library.
4. Paul, Akshoy; Roy, Pijush; Mukherjee, Sanchayan (2005), Mechanical sciences: engineering mechanics and strength of materials, Prentice Hall of India, p. 215.
5. Asimov, Isaac (1988), Understanding Physics, New York: Barnes & Noble, p. 88.
6. Anderson, William Ballantyne (1914). Physics for Technical Students: Mechanics and Heat. New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 112–22.
7. Pyrgidis, Christos N. (4 January 2016). "Cable railway systems for steep gradients". Railway Transportation Systems: Design, Construction and Operation. CRC Press. pp. 251-259.
8. Bowser, Edward Albert (1920), An elementary treatise on analytic mechanics: with numerous examples (25th ed.), D. Van Nostrand Company, pp. 202–203.
9. Chiu, Y. C. (2010), An introduction to the History of Project Management, Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers, p. 42.
10. U.S. Navy Bureau of Naval Personnel (1971), Basic machines and how they work 互聯網檔案館歸檔，歸檔日期2016年9月22號，. (PDF), Dover Publications.