記憶痕跡粵拼gei3 jik1 han4 zik1英文engram / memory trace)係指個入面儲住嘅一啲認知資訊,用嚟以某啲物理型式將記憶儲喺腦同第啲神經組織。

一個人腦立體模型;紅色嗰兩嚿就係海馬體,海馬體受損會搞到個人記憶力受損,但唔會令個人完全冇嗮記憶能力。

理論上,一個腦係一個認知系統,曉由外界吸收資訊(感知),呢啲資訊會引致個腦裏面有電同化學訊號等嘅變化(心智表徵),呢啲資訊當中有啲唔俾個腦判定為「值得儲起做記憶」,而假設心身二元論(mind-body dualism)係假-假設心理現象完全係由神經系統嘅物理過程主宰嘅,一個記憶嘅形成理應會造成個腦嘅一啲微細嘅物理變化,而搵出點樣由個腦嘅物理變化睇出有乜記憶產生喺神經科學心理學等嘅領域上係一個重要嘅課題[1][2]

痕跡分佈

廿一世紀初嘅神經科學界經已確立咗,記憶痕跡並唔係存在於一個單一腦區嘅:神經科學界做咗好多實驗,例如係特登破壞一隻大家鼠嘅某個腦區,再睇吓呢個操作會點樣影響受試動物嘅記憶能力;結果發現,搵唔到有任何一個腦區係「一旦呢個區破壞咗,就會冇嗮啲記憶」嘅[3]

等等多個腦區都同記憶功能有關-一般認為噉即係話,記憶痕跡係分散喺個腦嘅各部份嘅[註 1][4]

遺傳研究

有好多科學家致力研究記憶功能會點樣受遺傳因素影響。喺呢啲研究當中尤其重要嘅一個課題係搵出同記憶障礙(即係好似腦退化等會令記憶力出問題嘅病)相關嘅基因,個諗頭係靠呢啲研究幫醫護人員手預測邊啲人比較易患上記憶障礙,幫佢哋手做診斷嘅工作[5];到咗廿一世紀初,呢類研究經已有相當嘅成果,例如喺 2006 年,一班科學家發現咗一橛叫 WWC1基因,呢個基因能夠預測大人喺記憶作業上嘅表現,幫手令到持有佢嘅大人冇咁快唔記得吸收過嘅資訊[6][7]

註釋

  1. 不過有神經科學家指出,某啲特定類型嘅記憶有可能係由某啲腦區掌控嘅。

睇埋

文獻

  • Forgotten Ideas, Neglected Pioneers: Richard Semon and the Story of Memory, Daniel Schacter, 2001 ISBN 1-84169-052-X
  • Dudai, Y (2004). "The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?". Annual Review of Psychology. 55: 51–86. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142050.
  • Josselyn, S.A. (2010). "Continuing the search for the engram: examining the mechanism of fear memories". Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 35 (4): 221–228. doi:10.1503/jpn.100015. PMC 2895151. PMID 20569648.

  1. Liu, X., Ramirez, S., Pang, P. T., Puryear, C. B., Govindarajan, A., Deisseroth, K., Tonegawa, S. (22 March 2012). Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall. Nature, 22 March 2012 (Vol. 484 Issue. 7394 p. 381-385).
  2. Ryan, T.J., Roy, D.S., Pignatelli, M., Arons, A., Tonegawa, S. (29 May 2015). Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia. Science, 29 May 2015 (Vol. 348 Issue. 6238 p. 1007-1013).
  3. Bruce, Darryl (2001). "Fifty Years Since Lashley's In Search of the Engram". Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 10 (3): 308-318.
  4. Stefanelli, T.; Bertollini, C.; Lüscher, C.; Muller, D.; Mendez, P. (2016). "Hippocampal somatostatin interneurons control the size of neuronal memory ensembles". Neuron. 89 (5): 1-12.
  5. Tanzi, R. E., & Bertram, L. (2005). Twenty years of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid hypothesis: a genetic perspective. Cell, 120(4), 545-555.
  6. "Gene called Kibra plays an important role in memory". News-medical.net.
  7. Papassotiropoulos A., Stephan D.A., Huentelman M.J., Hoerndli F.J., Craig D.W., Pearson J.V., Huynh K.D., Brunner F., Corneveaux J., Osborne D., Wollmer M.A., Aerni A., Coluccia D., Hänggi J., Mondadori C.R., Buchmann A., Reiman E.M., Caselli R.J., Henke K., de Quervain D.J. (October 2006). "Common Kibra alleles are associated with human memory performance". Science. 314 (5798): 475-8.