認知偏差一覽

認知偏差指做判斷嘅時候系統性偏離常規或者理性,係心理學行為經濟學嘅常見課題 [1]

雖然大多數研究可以重現先前嘅實驗結果[2][3],但係種種偏差之間嘅區分仍然唔夠清晰,因為部分偏差可能重疊或者相關,同埋部分偏差嘅解釋同定義仍然有爭議[4]。於是,有研究嘗試分析唔同偏差嘅來源,從而整合同劃分唔同認知偏差[5]

亦有爭議認為某啲偏差係冇意思或者根本係非理性,又會質疑佢哋係咪真係會有效影響人嘅態度同行為。例如,第一次見面嘅時候,人會根據對嗰個人嘅觀察問一啲引導性問題 (leading question),嚟確認自己判斷得啱唔啱,準確噉認識對方,建立正確嘅印象。有人就會話呢啲係確認偏差,但係佢同時係常用嘅社交技巧,有助建立關係[6]。例如,當你見到某人著波衫,你會問佢係咪睇開波,係嘅話可能會撩佢講波經。

雖然研究對象大多數都係人類,但有研究發現非人類動物都有認知偏差。例如研究人員觀察到馬騮會有損失厭惡,老鼠、鴿同馬騮會俾雙曲線貼現影響[7]

信念、決策同行為

中文名 英文名 簡述
施事者偵測 Agent detection 錯誤前設 總係認為某件事發生嘅因由係源於背後有個施事者(有目的同有智慧嘅存在,例如人、靈體或者其它超自然力量)存在。
不明確厭惡 Ambiguity aversion 展望理論 傾向唔揀唔肯定後果係乜嘅選項[8]
錨定效應 Anchoring 錨定效應 太著重將最初拎到嘅資訊(錨點)嚟做判斷,令結果俾錨點牽引住[9][10]
人類中心主義 Anthropocentric thinking 可得性捷思 以人類嘅諗法為中心,理解同解釋世上所有現象。
擬人論 anthropomorphism 可得性捷思 傾向將動物、死物或者抽象概念描繪成擁有人類嘅習性、情感同動機[11]。同佢相反嘅概念叫做去人性化[12],係客體化/物化嘅一種。
注意力偏差 Attentional bias 可得性捷思 將注意力集中喺某方面,以致忽略其它選項。
屬性替代 Attribute substitution 因為需要判斷嘅屬性(attribute)太複雜,於是會簡化判斷,取代複雜嘅判斷[13]。例如評價人嘅時候會用某個特徵嚟判斷佢(整體)係咩人,而唔係全方面審視佢所有特質然後先做判斷。
自動化偏差 Automation bias 錯誤前設 過於依賴自動化系統所產生嘅判斷而忽略佢錯嘅可能,甚至乎就算人畀嘅答案比較合理,自動化系統嘅判斷仍然凌駕人嘅判斷[14]
可得性捷思 Availability heuristic 可得性捷思 因為判斷係根據最快諗到(可得性高)嘅嘢,以致高估某件事發生嘅機率。例如近嘅嘢記得比較清楚,於是判斷會參考近期記憶多啲,以致判斷可能同實情,例如數據(長期)有出入。
逆火效應 Backfire effect 確認偏差 說服者提供反方證據之後,被說者反而更加堅持己見,結果適得其反[15]。 註:呢個效應未有充足而答案一致嘅實證研究支持。
基本比率忽視 Base rate fallacy 擴充忽視 忽略正確嘅基本比率,只係留意個別嘅資訊,無視整合兩者嘅需要而用錯嘅基本比率做判斷[16]。例如酒精呼起測試嘅準確率有九成,唔代表有九成嘅醉駕者會俾人捉到,因為正確嘅基本比率係所有揸車嘅人,於是無辜嘅人都會受到牽連。因此,測試嘅準確率一般比九成低,低幾多就視乎醉駕者佔所有揸車嘅人嘅比例。
信念偏差 Belief bias 感實 因為結論合理而認為某個講法信得過,而唔係根據前提可唔可以支持呢個結論嚟做判斷,但事實上有可能前提(premise)係錯而結論係真[17]。例如結論係食菜好健康,但前提係食菜能醫百病(錯嘅前提)。一般人會直接接受結論而唔深究成個邏輯推論。
柏克森悖論 Berkson's paradox 邏輯謬誤 [18]
集群錯覺 Clustering illusion 妄想關聯 高估咗喺大量數據入面所搵到細模式(pattern/streak)

嘅真實性,但其實只係咁啱得咁橋[10]

同情心漸消 Compassion fade 擴充忽視 比起一大班唔識嘅受害者,對一小撮認得(identifiable)嘅受害者反而展現更多同情[19]
確認偏差 confirmation bias 確認偏差 根據成見嚟解讀同搵資訊,選擇性記得以及將注意力放喺同成見一致嘅資訊,從而確定己見無誤[20]
相合性偏差 Congruence bias 確認偏差 執着於測試最初嘅假設(hypothesis),嘗試證明假設係啱(同答案相合),而唔試吓測試其它假設[10]
合取謬誤 Conjunction fallacy 擴充忽視 認為某樣嘢符合多個條件比單一條件更可能發生,因而合取幾個條件。但事實上就概率嚟講,淨係符合一個條件應該比同時符合兩個條件更有可能發生[21]。 例如某人係物理學博士/某人係物理學博士兼且數學好好,雖然符合前者嘅概率大啲,但有時因為某啲原因(例如刻板印象)而認為後者嘅形容比較貼切,唔揀前者。
保守偏差 Conservatism bias(belief revision) 錨定效應 有新證據證明原有信念唔一定啱,會改變信念但調整得比較慢[22][23][24]
持續影響效應 Continued influence effect 確認偏差 錯誤嘅資訊即使經過修正之後仍然影響人往後嘅判斷同推論[25]
對比效應 Contrast effect 框架效應 對事物嘅觀感經過同對比鮮明嘅嘢比較之後會加強或者減弱[26]。 例如著黑色嘅衫會顯得皮膚白啲。
知情的魔咒 Curse of knowledge 知情較多嘅人誤以為其它人都有相關知識,但實情可能係冇[27],以致忽略知情較少嘅人所面對嘅問題[28]。 例如因為學生冇相關背景知識而聽唔明,但教授以為佢哋聽得明。
衰落論 Declinism 認為以前總係比未來好[29]
誘餌效應 Decoy effect 框架效應 對A同B嘅偏好會因為引入 C(誘餌)做比較而改變,當B喺各方面都好過 C 而 A 只係喺某方面好過 C,B 嘅評價會提升,甚至勝過 A[30]
預設效應 Default effect 框架效應 就算有幾個選擇,人傾向揀預設咗嗰樣[31]。例如每次買嘢都買同一款。
面額效應 Denomination effect 框架效應 同樣面額,拎住散紙比拎住大鈔會使得豪爽啲[32]
部署效應 Disposition effect 展望理論 傾向賣走升咗值嘅資產而保留貶咗值嘅資產。例如股票買賣。
差異效應 Distinction bias 框架效應 擺埋一齊比較比分開評估更容易見到兩者嘅差異[33]
鄧寧-克魯格效應 Dunning–Kruger effect 無能者高估自己嘅能力,反之亦然。[34]
時效忽視 Duration neglect 擴充忽視 事件發生嘅時長未必影響對呢個經驗嘅判斷[35]。例如淨係浸刺骨嘅冰水比起浸完冰水再浸冇咁冰(但依然令人痛苦)嘅水,人傾向覺得前者痛啲,雖然後者痛得耐啲。
同理心落差 Empathy gap 因為處於某種情緒狀態而錯估(無法同理)另一種情緒下嘅行為同態度,對自己同其他人都係噉[36]。例如冷靜嘅時候(冷狀態)好難想像自己嬲嘅時候(熱狀態)係點樣,以為一定會保持理性。
歷史終結幻象 End-of-history illusion 不論年齡,人普遍認為雖然一路以嚟經歷咗好多改變,但未來相對以往唔會再有大變,但事實上人通常若干年後嘅習慣、偏好同職業等各方面都好可能會唔同[37]
稟賦效應 Endowment effect 展望理論 當人擁有某樣嘢之後,呢樣嘢嘅價值就會上升,以致要佢哋放棄呢樣嘢嘅成本高過佢未擁有嘅時候會畀嘅成本[38]。例如用$100買咗樣嘢,呢樣屬於你嘅嘢喺你心目中嘅價值就唔止$100,你會要求$100以上先肯賣出去。
佛瑞效應/巴納姆效應 Forer effect or

Barnum effect

自我中心 人對於能夠準確描述佢哋嘅特性嘅句子有好高嘅評價,甚至有為佢度身訂造嘅感覺,但其實嗰啲描述往往係好模糊而且大部分人都適用。星座、算命、筆跡學同性格測試嘅盛行某程度上同呢個效應有關[39]
形式功能歸因偏差 Form function attribution bias 人根據自身對機器(robot)嘅外型(form)產生嘅期望同觀念嚟判斷佢嘅用途,繼而可能忽視佢嘅真正嘅用途[40]
框架效應 Framing effect 框架效應 資訊嘅表達方式會影響決策。例如對住唔鍾意風險嘅人,強調某件事嘅成功率比強調失敗率更加能夠驅使佢做嗰樣嘢。
頻率錯覺 Frequency illusion or

Baader–Meinhof phenomenon

可得性捷思 當注意到一啲以前唔留意嘅嘢,就開始覺得嗰樣嘢成日出現(選擇偏差嘅一種)[41][42] [43]
功能固著 Functional fixedness 錨定效應 因為習慣某樣工具嘅傳統功能而搞到唔識變通(用佢嚟做其他嘢)[44]
賭徒謬誤 Gambler's fallacy 邏輯謬誤 認為機率會畀過去嘅事影響(事實上唔關事)。例如擲銀仔連續好多次都係「字」,就覺得下次係「公」嘅機率應該大啲。(但其實機率冇變,都係二分之一)[45]
性別歧視 Gender bias 錯誤前設 對特定性別有唔明顯嘅歧視,例如假定女人唔適合從事要求高知識能力嘅工作[46]。 或者喺冇提供任何性別相關資訊嘅情況下就假定對方係男人[47]
難易效應 Hard–easy effect 高估自己處理難事嘅能力;低估自己處理易事嘅能力[22][48][49][50]
後見之明偏差 Hindsight bias 有時叫做「我一早知道喇」效應:"I-knew-it-all-along" effect,喺件事發生咗之後先話我一早預計到會噉樣 [51]。廣東話簡稱:馬後炮 / 事後孔明。
手感謬誤 Hot-hand fallacy 邏輯謬誤 因為上幾次成功而認為下次都會成功,但前者其實唔確保後者[52]。 例如連續射入幾球罰球之後就會話有手感,下球都會入。
雙曲折現 Hyperbolic discounting 擴充忽視 人鍾意即時回報多過遲嚟嘅回報,即係對後者打咗折扣。呢個效應令到人嘅選擇會隨時間而改變,而人會計劃做一啲未來嘅自己唔會做嘅嘢[53]。例如為咗健康(長期回報)而決定聽朝開始早起身做運動,但最後都係唔願起身,想訓多啲(短期回報)。
宜家效應 IKEA effect 勞力辯證 自己有份砌嘅傢俬,唔理件成品嘅質素係點,都會覺得件成品嘅價值好高,高到唔成比例[54]
不當轉移謬誤 Illicit transference 邏輯謬誤 將個別嘅事同集體嘅事混為一談。呢個效應有兩種形態:合成謬誤分割謬誤。例如前者指間公司整體幾好,所以每個員工都好好;後者指一個員工做得差就覺得成間公司嘅人都係咁差。
控制的錯覺 Illusion of control 自我中心 高估自己對外界嘅影響[55]
效度的錯覺 Illusion of validity 自我中心 高估自己嘅判斷同預測嘅準繩,特別係當現有嘅資訊一致而連貫嘅時候[56]
錯覺相關 Illusory correlation 妄想關聯 誤以為兩件冇關連嘅事有關連[57][58]
真相錯覺效應 Illusory truth effect 感實 當某個講法被重複提過好多次, ,或者容易接受同處理,就會傾向覺得係真(事實上可能係假),即係三人成虎。
影響力偏差 Impact bias 高估自己情緒反應嘅時長同強度[59]
資訊偏差 Information bias 就算明知新嘅資訊唔會影響原先嘅決定,仍然傾向搵多啲新資訊[60]
樣本規模不敏感 Insensitivity to sample size 擴充忽視 因為認為樣本大細唔影響結果而冇預計到細樣本嘅變動一般比較大(比較極端)[61]。 例如十個受訪者入面可能咁啱有五個有某種極端嘅偏好,而一百個受訪者好難會有成一半人都係噉,所以比例相對平均,實驗結果會比較中肯。
內感偏差 Interoceptive bias 身體嘅感覺影響對無關嘅外在事物嘅判斷,例如假釋法官食飽訓夠之後嘅判決會比較寬容 [62][63][64][65]
不理性增值/沉沒成本 Irrational escalation or

Escalation of commitment

邏輯謬誤 就算知道係錯,但為咗合理化以往嘅付出而唔改變決定,甚至投資更多喺嗰個行為上面[66]
工具定律 Law of the instrument 錨定效應 過分依賴熟悉嘅工具同方法而用死一個方法,低估或者無視其他切入點。打個比喻,就係「如果你手上淨係得一個鎚仔,噉所有嘢對你嚟講都只係釘嚟。」[67]
少即是好的效應 Less-is-better effect 擴充忽視 當細份同大份嘅嘢分開評估,人反而鍾意細份嘅嘢。但一併埋比較,又會揀返大啲嗰份。例如用細杯裝雪糕,比起用大杯裝同等分量甚至更多嘅雪糕,當只有其中一個選擇(例如間舖頭淨係賣細杯),人會滿意前者多啲。但如果兩個選擇同時擺喺佢哋面前,佢哋又會揀後者[68]
損失規避 Loss aversion 展望理論 預計要放棄一樣嘢所帶嚟嘅負效益(disutility)大過獲得嗰樣嘢所帶嚟嘅效益[69]
單純曝光效應 Mere exposure effect 單純曝光 純粹因為熟悉嗰樣嘢而鍾意佢[70]。例如因為見得多或者聽得多。
貨幣錯覺 Money illusion 相對於銀紙嘅購買力(實質價值),更加在乎銀紙嘅名義價值(面值)[71]。於是乎即使通脹率高過資產嘅面值增長,仍然可能覺得冇蝕到。
道德認證效應 Moral credential effect 做咗好事之後就鬆懈,容許自己之後做啲冇咁好嘅事,啲事好多時同道德相關[72]
機率無視 Neglect of probability 擴充忽視 遇到未知情況嘅時候完全無視機率嚟做決策[73], 好多時只係憑感覺而忽視或者高估某件事發生嘅機率[74]。例如近期成日聽到有小巴炒車,就覺得搭巴士安全過搭小巴,而唔深究同比較兩者咁多年嚟出事嘅機率。
非適應性選擇轉換 Non-adaptive choice switching 面對同樣嘅問題,就算某個決策其實係最好嘅方法,但如果第一次用嘅時候效果唔好,第二次就傾向唔會用返呢個方法。又叫做:「一朝畀蛇咬,十年怕草繩」。英文:"once bitten, twice shy"[75]
正常化偏差 Normalcy bias 認知失調 拒絕為未發生過嘅災難應變同籌謀,覺得唔會咁易出事[76]
觀察者期望效應 Observer-expectancy effect 確認偏差 研究者心入面對於研究有預期嘅結果而冇意識(unconsciously)噉操控實驗或者錯誤解讀實驗數據,從而令結果符合預期。
不作為偏差 Omission bias 有作為所造成嘅傷害比起冇作為所造成嘅傷害,即使傷害等量,人會覺得前者更加差同唔道德[77]。例如電車難題,由得架電車沿住原先條路軌車中人(冇作為)比主動拉杠令架電車車中人(有作為)感覺上冇咁唔道德。
樂觀偏差 Optimism bias 太過樂觀,低估壞結果出現嘅機率同時高估好結果出現嘅機率[78][79]
鴕鳥效應 Ostrich effect 忽視一啲好明顯係負面同不利嘅情況。
結果偏差 Outcome bias 根據結果好定壞嚟判斷決策本身好定唔好,而唔係根據當初做決定嘅時候對呢個決策嘅評價。 所以就算係同一個決策,如果第一次用個效果唔好,就會覺得嗰陣時決定得差,然後怪責做決定嗰個人。但係效果好唔好其實某程度視乎運氣,所以下次用返同一個方法而成功嘅話,就會覺得當初做得好,然後讚做決定嗰個人[80]
過分自信效應 Overconfidence effect 自我中心 認為自己嘅判斷準過一般人。越有自信,就越有呢個傾向[81][82]
空想性錯視 Pareidolia 妄想關聯 將模糊或者隨機組成嘅嘢(stimulus)想像成有意義嘅嘢,例如形狀同聲音。雲上面嘅人樣。
悲觀偏差 Pessimism bias 高估壞事出現嘅機率,有抑鬱症嘅人更加容易有呢個傾向[83][84]
繼續計劃偏差 Plan continuation bias 邏輯謬誤 意識唔到原本嘅計劃因為環境改變或者而唔再啱用[85]
規劃謬誤 Planning fallacy 自我中心 低估完成某件事嘅時間[59]
當前偏差 Present bias 衡量兩個未來回報嘅時候,更加鍾意距離而家近啲嘅回報(payoff)[86]
植物無視 Plant blindness 忽視環境周圍嘅植物,意識唔到植物為地球所帶嚟嘅效益[87]
支持創新偏差 Pro-innovation bias 對於新發明嘅用途太過樂觀,認為對成個社會到好有用而意識唔到佢嘅限制同弱點。
投射偏差 Projection bias 誤以為而家嘅偏好、諗法同價值觀同未來嘅自己一樣,以致做咗啲冇咁好嘅決定[88][89][90]
比例性偏差 Proportionality bias 認為大事必有大因,係人天生嘅傾向,可以用嚟解釋陰謀論嘅盛行[91][92]
偽確定效應 Pseudocertainty effect 展望理論 做幾重決策嘅時候假設一定會過到前一個階段,但其實唔一定過到。
新詞錯覺 Recency illusion 誤以為某個現象係好近期先出現但其實好耐以前已經有。語言嘅使用習慣成日會有呢個現象,例如以為有啲字係現代人先用但其實好多年前已經有人用緊[93]
自制偏差 Restraint bias 自我中心 高估自己嘅自制能力,以為可以抵受誘惑而唔會衝動行事[94]。例如第一次食煙甚至乎毒品嘅時候覺得自己唔會上癮。
押韻當理由效應 Rhyme as reason effect 感實 覺得句子越押韻就越準確、真實同有道理[95]
風險補償效應/佩茲曼效應 Risk compensation / Peltzman effect 覺得做某樣嘢安全咗之後就會冒更加多風險,以致帶嚟嘅傷害可能蓋過(offset)安全措施帶嚟嘅好處[96]。例如攬咗安全帶之後會渣快啲。
顯著偏差 Salience bias 可得性捷思 傾向淨係留意突出同會牽動情緒嘅嘢(例如龍捲風橫掃民居嘅畫面),而忽略冇咁起眼嘅嘢,即使客觀嚟講後者應該受到多啲關注。(例如因為發生嘅機率高過前者)
規模無視 Scope neglect 擴充忽視 對問題嘅關注程度同佢造成嘅影響唔成比例,多啲傷害造成唔會令人嘅同情同關心增加得太多[97]。 例如有 2000、20000 或者 200000 隻候鳥因為油污而死,喺呢三種情況下嘅捐款(反映關心程度)分別係 $80、$78 同 $88引用錯誤 <ref>標籤開頭格式有錯或者個名唔啱
選擇偏差 Selection bias 可得性捷思 統計數據唔係完全隨機採樣,某啲對象(例如族羣、性別)被揀(selected)咗做實驗對象,令到統計對象唔夠代表性。
選擇性注意 Selective perception 確認偏差 對同自己信念相左或者令到自己唔舒服嘅嘢視而不見,好快就唔記得,淨係留意到想睇嘅嘢。例如有個好學生犯錯,老師可能因為錫佢而唔當係一回事,相反壞學生做咗好事,佢就未必會留意。
塞麥爾維斯反射 Semmelweis reflex 確認偏差 因為同現有嘅信念、規範同範式相左而唔接受新嘅證據[24]
安於現狀偏差 Status quo bias 展望理論 鍾意安於現狀,認為任何改變都只會令到件事更加差[98][99]
刻板印象 Stereotyping 錯誤前設 唔實際了解對方就認為佢哋有某種特徵。
分開加總效應 Subadditivity effect 邏輯謬誤 判斷某個機率嘅總和傾向低過分開計之後加埋嘅總和[100]。例如逐樣估(即係逐樣問)自然死亡嘅原因(心臟病佔 22%、癌症佔 18% 同其它佔 33%)佔所有死亡原因嘅總和係 73%,比起直接推算(58%)高[101]
主觀驗證 Subjective validation 感實 因為想某樣嘢啱而認為嗰樣嘢係啱。同埋會覺得兩樣唔關事嘅嘢有關[102]
取代效應 Surrogation 太在意量度某目的嘅方法而令到原先嘅目的被取代,導致失焦[103]。例如追求客人喺問卷填嘅滿意分,多過客人實際上滿唔滿意。於是可能會做咗啲令分數上升但係實際上係冇好咗嘅嘢。
倖存者偏差 Survivorship bias 可得性捷思 淨係留意到經過幾重篩選(selection)而「倖存」嘅人,忽略咗失敗嘅人。
系統正當化 System justification 展望理論 捍衛現存嘅制度(例如政治、經濟同社會制度),貶低其它制度,即使現存制度係不利部分人。
省時偏差 Time-saving bias 邏輯謬誤 低估由本身慢速(例如 30km/h)開始加快(或減少)所慳到(蝕咗)嘅時間;高估由高速(例如 70km/h)加快(或減少)所慳到(蝕咗)嘅時間[104]
帕金森瑣碎定理 Parkinson's law of triviality 太過著重於瑣碎嘅事,投放少咗時間畀更加重要嘅事。特別係指大型組織唔集中處理一啲重要但係比較複雜嘅事,而走咗去處理啲雞毛蒜皮嘅事[105]
韋伯費希納定律 Weber–Fechner law 心理變化追唔上實質變化,特別係當數量 / 數值夠多 / 高,就越難察覺到有變化,直至去到某個臨界點(threshold)先注意到個分別。例如一樣嘢由 $10 加到 $15,好多人會即係留意到個分別然後可能唔買;但如果係由 $1000 加價加到 $1005,就會無視個分別,但明明兩者都係貴咗 $5。而 $1000 嘅臨界點可能要去到例如 $1050 先至會令人唔買/去其它地方買。
熟悉路線效應 Well travelled road effect 可得性捷思 低估行開嗰條路需要嘅時間;高估行唔熟嘅路要嘅時間。
女人總係好效應 Women are wonderful effect 比起男人,會將多啲好嘅特質同女人連繫起嚟。
零風險偏差 Zero-risk bias 擴充忽視 為咗令成個計劃嘅某一部分完全冇風險而放棄可以令整體風險跌得更加多嘅方法。
零和偏差 Zero-sum bias 邏輯謬誤 誤以為某個情況一定係零和,即係一定要其中一方有失,另一方先會有得。

社會類

中文名 英文名 簡述
行動者-觀察者偏差 Actor-observer bias 歸因偏差 對於某個行為係關個環境定係自己事,傾向用環境因素嚟解釋自己嘅行為;用個人因素(例如性格)嚟解釋其他人嘅行為[106]
權威偏差 Authority bias 關聯謬誤 認為權威講嘅嘢準啲,繼而容易受佢哋啲言論影響[107]
可取得性瀑布效應 Availability cascade 從眾效應 某個講法喺公共討論引起討論,不斷重複提及,令到呢個講法聽起上嚟越嚟越合理,然後聽嗰個人進一步傳播開去,令到更加多人知道之後因為多人討論而信咗呢個講法,令到呢個講法不斷自我強化(self-reinforcing),最後慢慢演變成一個集體信念(collective belief)[108]
從眾效應 Bandwagon effect 從眾效應 因為好多人都信或者做某啲嘢而走去信或者做嗰啲嘢[109]
富蘭克林效應 Ben Franklin effect 認知失調 如果曾經接受咗某個人嘅幫助,嗰個人會更加樂意再幫多你一次忙[110]
偏見盲點 Bias blind spot 自我中心 可以察覺到人哋嘅判斷有偏見但唔知自己其實有時都有偏見[111]
啦啦隊效應 Cheerleader effect 關聯謬誤 比起單獨一個人,身處喺一班人裡面會顯得更加吸引[112]
禮貌偏差 Courtesy bias 從眾效應 為咗唔得罪人而講一啲大眾會接受嘅說話而唔講真心話,例如提出不滿[113]
防禦性歸因假設 Defensive attribution hypothesis 歸因偏差 受害者自己,就越認為加害者要負責任,從而令自己冇咁驚;加害者越似自己,就越認為加害者唔使負責任[114][115]
自我中心 自我中心 自我中心
外在誘因偏差 Extrinsic incentives bias 歸因偏差 認為比起自己,其他人比較多係因為外在誘因(例如錢)而唔係內在誘因(例如學到新嘢)先有某啲行為[116]
錯誤共識效應 False consensus effect 自我中心 高估其它人認同自己嘅程度,認為自己嘅諗法、信念同行為好普遍[117]
假獨特偏差 False uniqueness bias 自我中心 認為一啲好嘅特質係得自己先有;唔好嘅特質就覺得好多人同佢一樣都有[118]
基本歸因謬誤 Fundamental attribution error 歸因偏差 過分強調性格對行為嘅影響;睇輕情境影響(situational influences)[119]。例如認為某個人經過撞到你係因為無禮貌,但其實嗰個人可能係因為有急事要做。
群體歸因謬誤 Group attribution error 認為一個人嘅立場、特徵同偏好係噉樣,佢所屬嘅群體都係噉樣;或者認為嗰個群體有某種特徵,群體入面每一個人都會有呢堆特徵[120][121][122]
團體迷思 Groupthink 從眾效應 群體為咗和諧同一致而做咗唔理性或者失調(dysfuntional)嘅決策,亦為咗唔嚴謹噉評價其它觀點而且達成共識,而壓抑相反嘅觀點。
暈輪效應 Halo effect 關聯謬誤 因為嗰個人嘅某個面向好(壞)而認為佢其它唔關事嘅面向都係好(壞)[123]。 例如因為人哋靚仔而認為佢係好人。
惡意歸因謬誤 Hostile 歸因偏差 歸因偏差 認為人哋嘅行為係有惡意但嗰個行為表達嘅意思可能好模糊,未必有惡意,甚至其實係善意[124]
不對稱了解錯覺 Illusion of asymmetric insight 自我中心 認為自己了解人哋,但人哋相對冇咁了解我[125]
透明度錯覺 Illusion of transparency 自我中心 高估其他人了解自己嘅心理狀況(例如諗法同情緒)嘅程度[126][127]
優越幻象 Illusory superiority 自我中心 認為比起其他人,自己有多啲好嘅特質,於是低估咗其他人;其他人都有嘅壞特質,就覺得自己冇乜,於是高估咗自己[128]。即係自我感覺良好。
群內偏見 In-group bias 群內偏差 相對所屬群體以外嘅人,偏袒同屬一個群體嘅人。
故意偏差 Intentionality bias 歸因偏差 傾向認為行為係有意(intentional)而唔係意外[129]
公正世界假設 Just-world hypothesis 歸因偏差 認為世界係正義嘅,亦即係所謂善有善報,惡有惡報,於是會覺得受到唔公正對待嘅人係抵死,因為佢哋做咗惡事。
道德運氣 Moral luck 歸因偏差 根據後果嚟判斷某個人有幾道德,但係後果係點樣有時係唔完全輪到自己決定。所以,如果淨係根據後果嚟做判斷,一個人有唔好嘅意圖但係最終有好嘅結果,都會俾人當成好人。
幼稚犬儒論 Naïve cynicism 自我中心 認為其他人做判斷會為咗自身利益而有偏差,但自己就唔會係噉。
幼稚實在論 Naïve realism 自我中心 認為自己睇嘢好客觀,唔認同我嘅人係唔理性、唔知情或者有偏見。
非我所創 Not invented here 群內偏差 避免用源自其它地方嘅產品、研究成果、標準同知識。呢個情況喺企業決策比較常見[130]
群外同質偏差 Outgroup homogeneity bias 群內偏差 認為同屬一個團體嘅人好多樣,其它團體入面嘅人就個個都一樣[131]
清教徒偏差 Puritanical bias 歸因偏差 傾向認為唔好嘅結果或者做錯事係因為唔能夠自控或者自身道德上有缺陷,而唔係俾環境影響[132]
畢馬龍效應 Pygmalion effect 對某個人有期望會令到佢嘅表現好咗,反之亦然。
對抗心理 Reactance 因為覺得某樣嘢限制咗你嘅自由而做相反嘅嘢,從而重奪自由[133]
反應貶抑 Reactive devaluation 因為係對手提出嚟而貶抑嗰個方案[134]
自利偏差 Self-serving bias 歸因偏差 為咗維持自尊而認為成功係因為自己,失敗係環境問題。又會將一啲唔明確嘅事解釋到對自己有利[135]。例如某件事成功嘅原因有好多,但係會將件事演繹到自己係成功嘅主因。
性趣認知過度/不足 Sexual overperception bias / Sexual underperception bias 錯誤前設 (因應唔同性別)高估或者低估人哋對你性方面嘅興趣[136]
社會比較偏差 Social comparison bias 因為唔想地位受到威脅而唔鍾意勁過自己嘅人,避免同佢哋競爭。相反,會揀一啲不如自己嘅人嚟比較,從而突顯自己嘅好[137]
社會期望偏差 Social desirability bias 從眾效應 做問卷嘅時候傾向會填符合社會期望嘅答案,而唔係真實諗法,導致結果有偏差[138]
信息共享偏差 Shared information bias 用相對多時間同精力討論大家都知道嘅嘢(shared information);用少啲時間同精力討論得部分人知道嘅嘢(unshared information)[139]
特質歸屬偏差 Trait ascription bias 自我中心 覺得自己嘅性格、行為同心情係多變而其它人就相對穩定,所以比較容易預測[140]
第三者效應 Third-person effect 自我中心 認為比起自己,其他人比較受大眾傳媒嘅影響[141]
終極歸因錯誤 Ultimate attribution error 歸因偏差 對住所屬群體(in-group),認為成功係因為內在因素,例如勤力;失敗係因為情景因素,即係唔好彩。對住外群體(out-group),就認為認為成功係因為情景因素,即係好彩;失敗係因為內在因素,例如懶[142]
差於常人效應 Worse-than-average effect 認為自己喺某啲比較難嘅項目表現比其他人差[143]


記憶類

記憶偏差可以令回憶(recall)嘅能力(例如記唔記得同要幾耐先記得返)變好或者變差,甚至改變記憶嘅內容。

中文名 英文名 簡述
怪異效應 Bizarreness effect 比起普通嘅事,更加容易記得起奇怪嘅事。
支持選擇偏差 Choice-supportive bias 記錯(misremember)同某個決定有關嘅嘢,例如淨係記得佢嘅好處,同時貶低放棄咗嘅選擇,從而證明自己揀得好[144]
跨種族效應 Cross-race effect 比起同一個種族,冇咁擅長辨認其它種族嘅人[145]
潛抑記憶 Cryptomnesia 以為諗到新或者原創嘅嘢但其實以前接觸過,只係唔記得咗[146]。例如將好耐以前聽過嘅音樂唔覺意寫入譜,以為係自己原創。
提示依賴 Cue-dependent forgetting 因為冇記憶提示(memory cues)而記唔起某啲嘢。
情感淡忘效應 Fading affect bias 唔開心嘅經歷比開心嘅經歷更加容易淡忘[147]
虛假記憶 False memory 回憶同事實偏離,甚至將想像當做現實[148]
生產效應 Generation effect (Self-generation effect) 相對其他人提出嘅嘢,比較容易記起自己諗出嚟(self-generated)嘅嘢。
谷歌效應 Google effect 越容易上網搵得到嘅嘢,就越容易唔記得。
鈍化與銳化 Leveling and sharpening 回憶嘅時候強調某啲細節(sharpening),例如誇大某啲行為或者反應,同時會忽略某啲細節(leveling),令事實有唔同程度嘅扭曲[149]
處理深度理論 Levels-of-processing effect 編寫(encode)記憶嘅方法越深層次,就更加能夠令人記得實啲嘢[150]。例如聽過某個字嘅發音後查埋字典,比起淨係聽完就算,會容易啲記得起。
錯誤訊息效應 Misinformation effect 因為事後發生咗好多事而令到情節記憶(episodic memories)冇咁準確[151]
形式效應 Modality effect 比起睇字,用聲嚟傳遞信息會令人冇咁容易唔記得(至少短期嚟講係噉)。
心境相合性記憶偏差 Mood-congruent memory bias 如果回憶嗰陣嘅生理同心理狀態(例如心情)同嗰件事發生(形成記憶)嘅時候一樣,會記得起多啲嘢。
負面偏差 Negativity bias or Negativity effect 同樣嘅強度,負面記憶(例如唔開心嘅經歷)比正面記憶對當刻嘅心理影響更加大[152][153]
輪流發言效應 Next-in-line effect 假設要輪流發言而差唔多到你嘅時候,會比較難記得嗰幾個(即係前你幾個)人講嘅嘢[154]
峰終定律 Peak–end rule 對經驗嘅判斷(例如有幾痛)主要係根據喺最強烈(例如最痛)同結尾嘅感覺,而比較少考慮感覺嘅時長。(例如痛幾耐)
圖片優勢效應 Picture superiority effect 睇圖比睇字學嘢更加有效,而且更容易記得返嗰個字[155][156][157][158][159][160]
正面效應 Positivity effect (Socioemotional selectivity theory) 人越老,就會用越正面嘅眼光睇返以前嘅事,令回憶總係充滿住美好嘅嘢[161][162]
序位效應 Serial position effect 比較容易記得一組嘢(series)

入面嘅頭同尾項,中間嘅相對冇咁容易記得[163]

記憶高峰 Reminiscence bump 中老年人(超過四十歲)特別容易記得起後生(例如廿歲)發生嘅事,相反近期啲嘅(例如八十歲回憶六十歲嘅事)反而冇記得咁清楚[164]
與我相關效應 Self-referance effect 易啲記得返同自己有關嘅嘢[165]
來源混淆 Source confusion 同其它(相似嘅)記憶撈亂,扭曲事實[166]。 例如將小說情節當係自身經歷。
間隔效應 Spacing effect 隔一段時間複習(例如隔幾個月翻睇一本書)比集中某段時間學習(例如考試之前嗰幾日狂溫書),可以令讀嘅嘢更加容易變成長期記憶。
可暗示性 Suggestibility 用其他人畀嘅資訊(suggestion)嚟填補記憶空白,令回憶可能俾人扭曲。例如回憶返細個發生嘅事,你屋企人會幫你補充細節,但係啲補充可能係錯。
Tachypsychia [167]
伸縮效應 Telescoping effect 覺得遠嘅嘢好似係近期先發生;近嘅嘢係好耐之前發生。
測試效應 Testing effect 做測試(例如重寫、答問題、做練習)比純粹重讀更加有助形成長期記憶[168]
舌尖現象 Tip of the tongue phenomenon 記得想講嘅字嘅幾個特徵,例如韻母同類似嘅字,差唔多講到出口但就係諗唔到成個字點讀[169]
雷斯多夫效應 von Restorff effect 一堆相似嘅嘢入面最特殊嘅嘢最容易令人記得[170]
蔡格尼效應 Zeigarnik effect 比起完成咗嘅事,更加容易記得未完成 / 中途停咗嘅事。

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