前額皮層粵拼cin4 aak6 pei4 cang4英文prefrontal cortex)係額葉(frontal lobe)最近額頭嗰一橛,出嗮名專門幫手做一啲所謂嘅「高層」認知功能,例如係計劃決策呀噉[1]

一個人腦由左邊睇嘅樣;紅色嗰橛就係前額皮層。

前額皮層會由 VTA 嗰度接收多巴胺(dopamine)訊號,又能夠向伏隔核等嘅多個犒賞相關腦區傳穀氨酰胺訊號-「能夠向伏隔核傳訊號」就表示,前額皮層有可能對伏隔核等嘅線條體結構作出一定程度嘅管控,而廿一世紀初嘅研究的確顯示,前額皮層會扮演啲噉嘅功能[2]

功能

睇埋:心理犒賞自我控制同埋性格

前額皮層嘅管控功能衝動自我控制嚟講好重要:

  • 有研究者試過一路用神經造影技術監察受試者嘅腦活動,一路要佢哋做延遲折扣決策,叫佢哋做若干次「喺一嚿細嘅短期得益同一嚿大嘅延遲得嗌之間二揀一」噉嘅決擇,發覺前額皮層某幾橛嘅活動同個體嘅  顯著相關,又同嚿延遲得益嘅量有正相關[3][4]
  • 簡化噉講,前額皮層嘅神經細胞運算每個選項嘅價值(睇埋效益),然後按每個選項嘅主觀價值嚟傳訊號去腦嘅其餘部份,調控嗰啲部份嘅活動,例如家陣前額皮層決定咗「短期快感嗰個選項冇長期利益嗰個咁好」,佢就會傳訊號阻止杏仁核產生「會引導個人去追求短期快感」嘅情緒變化。

因為噉,前額皮層嘅功能對一個人嘅自控能力有深遠嘅影響[5],而前額皮層出現病變往往會搞到個病人喺自控能力上出現異常[6]

睇埋

  1. DeYoung C.G., Hirsh J.B., Shane M.S., Papademetris X., Rajeevan N., Gray J.R. (June 2010). "Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five". Psychological Science. 21 (6): 820–8.
  2. Koob, G. F., & Volkow, N. D. (2016). Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(8), 760-773.
  3. Shamosh, N. A., DeYoung, C. G., Green, A. E., Reis, D. L., Johnson, M. R., Conway, A. R., ... & Gray, J. R. (2008). Individual differences in delay discounting: relation to intelligence, working memory, and anterior prefrontal cortex (PDF). Psychological science, 19(9), 904-911.
  4. Peters, J., & Büchel, C. (2010). Episodic future thinking reduces reward delay discounting through an enhancement of prefrontal-mediotemporal interactions (PDF). Neuron, 66(1), 138-148.
  5. Miller, P., & Wang, X. J. (2006). Inhibitory control by an integral feedback signal in prefrontal cortex: a model of discrimination between sequential stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(1), 201-206.
  6. Hare T.A., Camerer C.F., Rangel A. (May 2009). "Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system". Science. 324 (5927): 646–8.