喺日常用語當中,習慣粵拼zaap6 gwaan3英文habit)大致係指一啲「周時做完又做,好多時唔覺意做咗」嘅行為[1];而喺嚴謹啲嘅行為科學上,習慣就可以大致定義[2]

一個人喺塊前面刷牙;喺廿一世紀初,啲人一般都慣咗臨瞓前刷牙,一到咗瞓覺時間就會自動自覺去刷。
一個唔使點諗就重複噉做出嚟嘅行為。

習慣呢個概念引起咗唔少行為科學同社會科學工作者嘅關注:事實表明,習慣能夠對好多重要嘢產生巨大影響-例如啲人之所以會,好多時係因為佢哋成日習慣性噉去搵零食嚟食,而肥會提升好多嚴重健康問題出現嘅機率[3];而且事實亦表明,習慣要變一啲都唔容易[4]。因為噉,有唔少行為科學同相關領域嘅工作者-包括市場學醫療健康以至遊戲設計呀噉-都有留意習慣相關嘅行為研究。

定義

睇埋:學習同埋雙重過程理論

喺廿一世紀初嘅行為科學上,「習慣」嘅定義有些少含糊[5],當中喺 1903 年就有心理學家噉樣定義習慣呢隻詞[6]:p. 1

原版英文:"Habit, from the standpoint of psychology, [as] a more or less fixed way of thinking... or feeling acquired through previous repetition of a mental experience."

粵文翻譯:習慣,由心理學嘅角度睇,(係)一種大致固定嘅諗嘢... 或者感受嘢嘅方式,學習自打前心靈體驗嘅重複。

習慣呢個概念可以用雙重過程理論(dual-process theory)嚟諗:根據雙重過程理論,人腦有兩大系統負責做決策推理功能[7][8]

學習嘅過程可以局部想像成「由第二型變第一型」嘅過程:想像家陣個人學踩單車;實際經驗表明,佢初頭嗰陣硬係要有意、慢慢噉諗「隻腳板要踩邊個位」或者「手要揸手柄邊個位」等嘅資訊;但隨住佢踩得愈嚟愈熟,佢開始唔使諗就做到呢啲嘢(同時開始唔會諗第啲動作[9]);學做第啲動作嗰時都係噉-開頭嗰陣要有意識諗想做嘅動作,做到咁上下就變咗「自動波」,唔使諗都能夠正確做出個動作[10]。有咗呢個概念,習慣就可以想像成[11][12]:p. 1

由時間地點等嘅情境觸發(所謂嘅 situational cue)引起嘅『自動波』(第一型)行為。

想像有個人晚晚臨瞓前都會刷牙:佢好細個嗰陣,阿爸阿媽已經教佢要晚晚臨瞓前刷牙;佢初頭唔識刷,要阿爸阿媽提佢先記得要臨瞓前刷牙;不過,佢畀阿爸阿媽教到咁上下,就開始晚晚臨瞓前就自動自覺噉去刷牙;佢呢種行為唔淨只「自動波」,仲係定時定候由時間地點(臨瞓前)引起嘅-呢個人算係「習慣咗臨瞓前刷牙」[5]

形成

 
有個人喺度食雪糕-「一路做第啲嘢一路食嘢」呢種無意識噉做又帶嚟快感嘅行為,好易變成習慣。
睇埋:聯想式學習心理犒賞同埋啟發法

有唔少社科研究都有興趣分析習慣。例如市場學就成日都想達致「要令啲消費者習慣性噉消費產品」-喺 2009 年有市場學家喺戲院做研究,發覺冇買開(冇習慣)爆谷嘅消費者買爆谷嘅機率明顯受爆谷嘅味道影響,有買開(有習慣)爆谷嘅消費者就比較傾向「啲爆谷唔好食都照買」[13]。噉即係話,社科研究者會想問以下嘅問題:

習慣呢家嘢係點形成嘅呢?

一般認為,習慣形成主要有三大部份[11]:p. 7[14][15]

  • 某個一而再再而三噉出現嘅情境觸發[4]
  • 要重複嗰樣行為;同埋
  • 行為達致嘅犒賞(簡化講即係能夠帶嚟快感);

舉個具體例子,有行為科學研究者指,啲人會好多時係因為佢哋習慣咗得閒就去搵小食:想像有個人,佢喺屋企一覺得或者(一而再再而三噉出現嘅情境觸發)嗰陣就會想搵快感;對佢嚟講,搵快感最方便嘅方法係走去櫃度攞薯片或者曲奇餅等嘅嘢嚟食(要重複嗰樣行為),而佢每次做出呢樣行為,就會得到「食到好味嘅嘢」嘅快感(犒賞);因為呢樣行為帶嚟快感,佢會有動力重複噉做,重複咗好多次後就變咗「自動波」,令佢慣咗喺屋企一覺得悶或者攰就會走去個櫃度搵小食-如是者就愈食愈肥[3]

改變

內文:行為改變理論
睇埋:量化自我

好多行為科學相關工作者都想改變啲人嘅習慣:市場學工作者會想「改變啲消費者嘅習慣,令佢哋由買開第間公司嘅產品,變成買我哋嘅產品」,而醫療健康方面嘅工作者又會(例如)想改變啲人定時定候就去搵零食嘅習慣,用嚟幫人減肥;不過事實表明,習慣唔易改變-習慣一形成咗,人個腦入面有會有咗穩定(難變)嘅記憶痕跡,就算個人有意圖想改變,都未必會改變得到[4]

要改變習慣,可以有幾種方法:

  • 自我控制:定時提醒啲人施展自控[註 1],不過呢種方法喺個人攰或者分咗心嗰陣會冇咁有效[16]
  • 改變環境:習慣係由時地等嘅環境刺激引起嘅,所以環境改變(例如搬屋)可以令啲習慣跟住起變化[17]
  • 犒賞移除:即係移走習慣行為帶嚟嘅快感,例如如果要改變自己「成日不自覺走去搵零食」嘅習慣,大可以索性唔畀自己喺屋企儲住啲零食。

... 呀噉。

應用

 
一個人腦由左邊睇嘅樣;紅色嗰橛就係前額皮層
睇埋:行為科學同埋心理干預

睇埋

  • 前額皮層(PFC):人腦入面一個主管有意識行為同目的腦區,位於大腦皮層(人腦最外面嗰浸)最近額頭嗰忽;腦神經學研究指,是但攞件行為 B,教一班受試者做 B,佢哋初頭每次做 B 嗰時 PFC 都會有高嘅腦活動,而隨住佢哋習慣做 B,佢哋會開始唔使諗都做到,而且佢哋「做 B 嗰陣嘅 PFC 活動」會變到冇咁強[19]
  • 認知決策:人喺趕時間(唔夠時間用第二型過程)或者分咗心(心靈資源唔夠)嗰陣,零舍容易變成「齋靠習慣決定點樣行事」[11]:p. 5
  • 自閉症譜系:自閉症譜系嘅其中一個特徵係個人行為好規範化,硬係要定時定候就做習慣性嘅行為,而且一要佢改習慣就會緊張[20]
  • 反應時間
  • 學習曲線
  • 衝動
  • 習俗

註釋

  1. 「定時提醒人做嘢」呢樣工作可以自動化。詳情可以睇吓量化自我同相關嘅人機互動(HCI)概念。

文獻

  • Bowers, J., & Abrahamson, D. (2019). Kicking the Habit: The Opioid Crisis, America's Addiction to Punitive Prohibition, and the Promise of Free Heroin. Ohio St. LJ, 80, 787,吸毒同相關嘅犯罪行為好多時源於個人「慣咗去搵毒品」(毒品會帶嚟快感)。
  • Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification. using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. In CHI'11 extended abstracts on human factors in computing systems (pp. 2425-2428).
  • Neal, D. T., Wood, W., & Quinn, J. M. (2006). Habits - A repeat performance. Current directions in psychological science, 15(4), 198-202.
  • Smith, K. S., & Graybiel, A. M. (2022). Habit formation. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.
  • Tuu, H. H. (2022). The role of impulsiveness and habit strength in reducing food waste. Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, (ahead-of-print).
  • Vance, A., Siponen, M., & Pahnila, S. (2012). Motivating IS security compliance: Insights from habit and protection motivation theory. Information & Management, 49(3-4), 190-198,呢篇文講運用習慣嚟教員工安全噉使用資訊系統

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