喺嚴格嘅心理學上,性格粵拼sing3 gaak3英文personality)-粵文入面又有叫個性或者人格-係指一個個體特有(即係同第啲個體唔同)嘅行為情緒或者認知特性:想像一個人,佢可以想像成一個會由刺激俾反應嘅系統,而人係有個體差異嘅生物物種;就算接收嘅刺激完全一樣,唔同人都可能會有唔同反應[1][2],例如外向度高嘅人一般喺見到新朋友(刺激)嗰陣,比較有可能會作出「主動行埋去結識」嘅反應,而外向度低嘅人喺同一個情況下會「主動行埋去結識」嘅機會就比較低[3]

定義

喺廿一世紀初嘅心理學上,「性格」呢個詞係一啲描述人嘅行為認知或者情緒變數,而呢啲變數要具有兩大特徵先可以算係性格嘅一部份[4]

  • 會喺人同人之間有差異(between-person variability):想像一個性格變數    實係會喺人同人之間有差異嘅;  可以係一個行為上嘅變數(例如反映一個人有幾常做「主動噉同人講嘢」呢樣行為),可以係一個認知上嘅變數(例如反映一個人傾向將注意力擺喺啲乜嘢嗰度[5]),又可以係一個情緒上嘅變數(例如話一個人細膽表示佢容易[6]),重點係研究者可以搵個數表示每一個人喺   呢個變數上嘅數值;舉個簡單嘅例子說明,「主動噉同人講嘢」係一種容易觀察到嘅行為,所以研究者可以搵一班受試者返去實驗室嗰度,影住佢哋嘅行為,並且數吓每位受試者有幾多次出現「主動噉同人講嘢」嘅行為,得出嗰個數就係每位受試者嘅  ,個數值反映一個人有幾常做「主動噉同人講嘢」呢樣行為,亦都好可能反映每個人有幾外向(一個唔能夠直接量度心理建構),而且呢個數值個個人都唔係好同[7]
  • 會喺一個個體內部穩定(within-person stability):性格嘅另一個重要特點係喺一個人內部有返咁上下穩定;想像一個性格變數    反映一個人「有幾鍾意講嘢」,可能數值係 1 至 10 分,愈高分表示佢愈鍾意講嘢,家陣阿 A 君喺   上嘅數值係最高嘅 10 分,佢係一個好鍾意講嘢嘅人,但佢未必係無時無刻都鍾意講嘢,例如如果家陣觀察佢喺一個月之內嘅行為,發覺有兩日佢情緒低落搞到佢冇心機講嘢(講嘢嘅次數喺嗰兩日之間明顯少咗一截),不過喺成個月之內,佢每日講嘢次數嘅平均值依然係高過一般人好多-「一個人喺   上得分高嘅話,佢傾向會喺唔同情境下都展現出   得分高反映嘅行為」[8]
  • 用一條算式表達嘅話,可以噉樣想像[8]
    行為、認知或者情緒  
    • 當中   係個人嘅特性(可以喺人之間有差異),而   係情境(令一個個體就算性格唔變,都會喺唔同時間出現唔同嘅行為、認知或者情緒);條式即係話「行為、認知或者情緒取決於個人特性同情境」。

性格心理學

內文:性格心理學

性格心理學(personality psychology)係專門研究性格嘅心理學子領域,會思考以下嘅問題:

  • 描述性:人與人之間可以喺邊啲行為情緒認知特性上有個體差異?原則上,人可以喺無數咁多嘅行為情緒認知特性上有個體差異,不過呢啲可以有個體差異嘅特性有部份會對一個人嘅行為比較有影響力,例如係五大性格特質(Big Five personality traits)就描述包括外向度在內嘅五個性格因素,主張呢五個因素雖然唔係唯一能夠有個體差異嘅行為情緒認知特性,但就零舍會影響到一個人嘅運作[9]
  • 實用性:要點樣量度人嘅性格?性格心理學家會嘗試用各種心理測量學(psychometrics)方法,嘗試建立出一啲可以攞嚟喺應用上量度性格嘅架生,簡單嘅例子有用心理測量學方法造出能夠量度外向度嘅問卷,而研究又指,外向度喺某啲情況下能夠預測一個員工嘅工作表現,噉呢個問卷就會喺管理學上有用[10]
  • 理論性:性格呢家嘢可以點樣用心理學理論思考?好似係強化敏感度理論(RST)噉,就運用咗強化懲罰呢兩個基礎嘅心理學概念(詳情可以睇埋行為論),指出性格好大程度上可以想像成對強化以及對懲罰嘅敏感度嘅個體差異,例如一個人嘅膽量可以想像成佢對懲罰(會令人嘅刺激)有幾敏感[11]

... 等等。

重要性格理論

... 等等。

睇埋

文獻

  • Cooper, C. (2019). Pitfalls of personality theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 151, 109551.
  • Eysenck, S. B., Barrett, P. T., & Saklofske, D. H. (2020). The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (PDF). Personality and Individual Differences, 109974.
  • Kwon, Paul (August 1999). "Attributional Style and Psychodynamic Defense Mechanisms: Toward an Integrative Model of Depression". Journal of Personality. 67 (4): 645–658. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00068.
  • Prunas, Antonio; Di Pierro, Rossella; Huemer, Julia; Tagini, Angela (January 2019). "Defense mechanisms, remembered parental caregiving, and adult attachment style". Psychoanalytic Psychology. 36 (1): 64–72. doi:10.1037/pap0000158.

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