抑制控制英文inhibitory control / response inhibition)喺行為科學上係指一個個體喺有股衝動想去做某樣嘢、但知道呢樣嘢唔應該做嗰陣,作出抑制嘅認知功能

「咦,綠燈喎,等我過馬路先...」
跟住喺下一刻,盞交通燈紅燈,個人就即刻跟住停低(抑制「過馬路」呢個行動)。

基本概念

內文:去-唔去

呢個概念可以用去-唔去(go/no go)嘅測試嚟諗;又想像家陣擺隻大鼠喺個籠入面,籠入面有個掣同一盞燈[1][2]

  • 每當盞燈閃綠色光(訊號go signal)嗰陣,隻大鼠就要喺 1 秒內去撳個掣,撳啱咗嘅話就有嘢食;而經驗顯示,隻大鼠好快就會學識一見到盞燈閃綠色光就去撳掣。
  • 跟住想像加一條新嘅規則,由而家開始,每次盞燈閃綠色光嗰陣,都有若干機率  )會係盞燈喺 0.2 秒之後閃紅色光(唔去訊號;no-go signal),如果出現咗唔去訊號,噉隻大鼠就要唔好去撳掣,而如果佢冇做到抑制自己撳掣嘅行動嘅話,就會受到懲罰,例如個籠會有電流通過電佢,令佢有嘅感覺;

每當隻大鼠見到去閃綠燈(去訊號)嗰陣,佢都會為咗想有嘢食而有股動力去撳掣(行動),而如果跟住出現紅燈(唔去訊號),佢就需要停低唔好做出「撳掣」呢一個舉動(抑制就嚟要郁手做嘅行動)。一隻動物-無論係大鼠定係人都好-喺去-唔去測試當中「對唔去訊號俾正確嘅反應嘅機率」( )就反映咗佢嘅抑制控制能力[1][3]

一般認為,衝動係同抑制控制成大致反比嘅:去-唔去測試嘅研究方法可以攞嚟喺人身上做[註 1];一個人抑制控制能力愈高,就反映佢嘅衝動程度愈低,反之亦然;如果話一個人衝動嘅話,就表示佢抑制控制能力低,成日都會一見到想要做嘅嘢就即刻郁手去做,明知噉做會有後果都係照做;例如一個因為衝動而暴飲暴食嘅人噉,佢往往都係一見到嘢食(去訊號)就會有股衝動走去食(行動),就算佢跟住就諗起「食得多得滯會搞到自己」嘅後果(唔去訊號),都照樣繼續食(抑制失敗)[4]。除咗暴飲暴食之外,抑制控制能力亦都同好多衝動相關嘅心理病有啦掕-例如係過度活躍症(ADHD)[5]爛賭[6]等嘅心理病嘅患者都傾向有抑制控制能力過低嘅情況。

註釋

  1. 因為道德嘅問題,做喺人身上嘅研究正路唔會用引起嘅或者,而係會用人道啲嘅嘢做懲罰,例如「失敗咗就會搞到參與實驗得到嘅獎金減少」呀噉。

睇埋

  1. 1.0 1.1 Epstein, J. N., Erkanli, A., Conners, C. K., Klaric, J., Costello, J. E., & Angold, A. (2003). Relations between continuous performance test performance measures and ADHD behaviors. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 31(5), 543-554.
  2. Smillie, L. D., Dalgleish, L. I., & Jackson, C. J. (2007). Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (PDF). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(4), 476-489.
  3. Diana H. Fishbein (Ed.). (2000). The science, treatment, and prevention of antisocial behaviors: Application to the criminal justice system (Vol. 1). Civic Research Institute, Inc..
  4. Newton, J. R., Freeman, C. P., & Munro, J. (1993). Impulsivity and dyscontrol in bulimia nervosa: is impulsivity an independent phenomenon or a marker of severity?. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87(6), 389-394.
  5. Bezdjian, S., Baker, L. A., Lozano, D. I., & Raine, A. (2009). Assessing inattention and impulsivity in children during the Go/NoGo task. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 365-383.
  6. Chowdhury, N. S., Livesey, E. J., Blaszczynski, A., & Harris, J. A. (2017). Pathological gambling and motor impulsivity: a systematic review with meta-analysis (PDF). Journal of gambling studies, 33(4), 1213-1239.