Wikipedia:點樣睇生物分類框How to read a taxobox
獨角仙
一隻公嘅獨角仙成蟲
一隻嘅獨角仙成蟲
物種分類
動物界 Animalia
節肢動物門 Arthropoda
昆蟲綱 Insecta
甲蟲目 Coleoptera
金甲蟲科 Scarabaeidae
亞科 兜蟲亞科 Dynastinae
獨角仙屬 Allomyrina
獨角仙 A. dichotoma [1]

獨角仙duk6 gok3 sin1日文カブトムシ日羅kabutomushi學名Trypoxylus dichotomus / Allomyrina dichotoma),又有叫日本兜蟲Japanese rhino beetle)或者雙叉犀金龜,係金甲蟲科兜蟲亞科[1]之下嘅一個物種[2]

獨角仙係其中一種最出名嘅兜蟲:佢哋廣泛噉分佈喺東亞多地,包括日本列島臺灣朝鮮半島華東等地嘅森林都見得到佢哋嘅蹤影[3];佢哋全身有硬淨嘅「甲」保護住(多數甲蟲都有嘅特徵),同多數嘅兜蟲一樣,佢哋當中啲嘅頭前方有大隻嘅角,啲公會用角嚟打交爭地盤同埋交配權利[4]

日本文化裏面,獨角仙有一定嘅文化意義:獨角仙公嘅角,畀日本人覺得望落似武士戴嘅頭盔-事實係,獨角仙個日文名就係嚟自武士兜嘅結合嘅;獨角仙廣受日本人喜愛,日本嘅細路好興養佢哋做寵物,而且日本嘅媒體作品仲時不時會用獨角仙嘅形象[4][5],例子可睇吓《寵物小精靈》呀噉。

形態

睇埋:兜蟲

獨角仙係兜蟲Dynastinae)下嘅一個物種。

  • 獨角仙以兜蟲嚟講唔算大隻。佢哋成蟲可以去到成 8 cm 咁長,當中(4 - 8 cm)體型大過(4 - 6 cm)些少[6]
  • 無論公定乸,一隻成年嘅獨角仙同多數嘅甲蟲一樣「有硬甲」:佢哋由都畀一浸又厚又硬淨嘅外骨骼(尤其係翼鞘)保護住,背脊有兩對,一對厚嘅翼加一對好似薄膜噉嘅翼,令到獨角仙曉飛,仲能夠垂直起飛;喺色水上,獨角仙屬於比較暗淡嘅甲蟲-佢哋身體軟嗰部份呈啡色,而硬淨嘅外甲就係深啡至黑噉嘅色,唔似得(例如)外甲呈淺綠噉色嘅大力士甲蟲Dynastes hercules;另一種出名嘅兜蟲)[5]
  • 同第啲兜蟲一樣,獨角仙公乸明顯唔同樣:公同乸嘅成蟲最樣眼嘅分別係,獨角仙公嘅頭前方有兩隻角,一大一細,兩隻都分叉,當中大啲嗰隻會成 Y 字噉形;喺夏天(交配季節)嗰陣,啲獨角仙公會用佢哋嘅角嚟玩相撲,嘗試用力量制服對手,一嘢撬到對手飛起,而打贏咗嘅公就會得到地盤;除此之外,一隻獨角仙公隻角大,反映咗佢喺幼蟲階段嗰時得到良好嘅營養[7][8]-啲乸會偏好同角大又強壯(爭到地盤)嘅公交配[4]
  • 獨角仙成蟲係食齋嘅,最鍾意食啲含有豐富糖份植物物料,例如係樹汁花蜜同埋生果呀噉,成日會成群噉喺樹上面聚集搵樹汁飲[4];有陣時,啲獨角仙公會為咗爭優質嘅飲樹汁位置而用佢哋嘅角打交,打贏咗先有得喺呢啲靚位飲樹汁[9]
  • 獨角仙主要係喺夜晚活動嘅。

生命歷程

 
一條獨角仙幼蟲
睇埋:完全變態

同第啲甲蟲一樣,獨角仙係行完全變態嘅,一世蟲分幼蟲成蟲四個階段,條命大約有 12 個月咁長。

獨角仙大半世都喺入面渡過:喺夏天尾,大咗肚嘅獨角仙乸會將啲蛋分散式噉生喺泥裏面[7]:p. 1;蛋會喺大約 10 日至 14 日內孵化,變成幼蟲;獨角仙啲幼蟲一條條噉形,白白哋噉色;佢哋一出世就會食腐殖質(humus;簡化講就係泥土入面由植物同動物物料腐爛形成嘅一啲有機物質)維生[10];佢哋要一路猛咁食嘢儲起養份,一路脫皮增,幼蟲期會維持 8 個月左右,生到咁上下(過咗第三齡)就會結蛹,而蛹嘅時期會維持大約 2 個禮拜[11]

蛹多數會喺春去夏來嘅時期(6 月至 7 月)嗰陣變成成蟲:成蟲可以有成 4 個月咁耐命[12],佢哋由個蛹度捐咗出嚟之後,就要離開泥土,去搵伴侶交配傳宗接代-啲獨角仙公會開始用角打交爭地盤,而啲獨角仙乸就會搵啲角又大又靚嘅公做對象交配;交配過後,啲乸就會搵地方生蛋;而無論公定乸,獨角仙都唔會有能力越冬-成蟲多數到咗 9 月中至 10 月頭(秋天)就會冚唪唥死嗮[11]

喺秋冬期間,獨角仙啲幼蟲會住喺暖笠笠嘅泥入面,一路食嘢一路過冬,跟住重覆上述呢個由生到死嘅過程[9]

文化影響

 
15 世紀一個武士兜
睇埋:昆蟲相撲

獨角仙喺日本文化入面有咁上下地位。

  • 獨角仙公嘅角 Y 字形噉分叉,畀好多人覺得望落有些少似日本武士傳統戴嘅頭盔-事實係,獨角仙個日文名就係嚟自 kabuto(武士兜)同 mushi(蟲)嘅結合嘅;再加上獨角仙公又出嗮名成日會打交,令到獨角仙公近乎成為咗「鬥志」嘅象徵[4]
  • 哥斯拉》(片假名:ゴジラ)、《幪面超人》(片假名:仮面ライダー)同埋《寵物小精靈》(片假名:ポケットモンスター)等多套出名嘅日本媒體創作品,都有用到獨角仙嘅形象,例如《寵物小精靈》入面嘅精靈 No. 214 赫拉剋羅斯(片假名:ヘラクロス;日羅:herakurosu)個設計就係基於獨角仙嘅[註 1]
  • 日本嘅細路好興養獨角仙做寵物:獨角仙相對乾淨、易打理、對人類冇害、會食生果(生果係人類都成日食嘅嘢,所以對多數人嚟講易搵),所以好易養;啲細路仲會攞自己養嘅獨角仙玩昆蟲相撲-佢哋會將兩隻公嘅獨角仙擺喺一條木頭上面,再睇兩隻獨角仙打交;因為獨角仙咁有人氣,日本嘅寵物相關舖頭仲會賣獨角仙,而喺 2020 年代初,一隻典型嘅獨角仙無論公乸,據講賣價都係喺 2,000 至 4,000 円日圓左右[13]

... 呀噉。

睇埋

註釋

文獻

  • Hongo, Y. (2003). Appraising behaviour during male-male interaction in the Japanese horned beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis (Kono). Behaviour, 140(4), 501-517.
  • Hongo, Y. (2010). Does flight ability differ among male morphs of the Japanese horned beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae)?. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 22(3), 271-279.
  • Iguchi, Y. (1998). Horn dimorphism of Allomyrina dichotoma septentrionalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) affected by larval nutrition. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 91(6), 845-847.
  • Karino, K., Seki, N., & Chiba, M. (2004). Larval nutritional environment determines adult size in Japanese horned beetles Allomyrina dichotoma. Ecological Research, 19(6), 663-668.
  • Ohde, T., Morita, S., Shigenobu, S., Morita, J., Mizutani, T., Gotoh, H., Zinna, RA., Nakata, M., Ito, Y., Wada, K., Kitano, Y., Yuzaki, K., Toga, K., Mase, M., Kadota, K., Rushe, J., Lavine, LC., Emlen, DJ. and Niimi, T. (2018) Rhinoceros beetle horn development reveals deep parallels with dung beetles. PLOS Genetics, 14: e1007651.
  • Siva-Jothy, M. T. (1987). Mate securing tactics and the cost of fighting in the Japanese horned beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma L.(Scarabaeidae). Journal of Ethology, 5(2), 165-172.

  1. 1.0 1.1 Yang, H., You, C. J., Tsui, C. K., Tembrock, L. R., Wu, Z. Q., & Yang, D. P. (2021). Phylogeny and biogeography of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) based on SNP markers. Ecology and Evolution, 11(1), 153-173.
  2. The Love Songs Of The Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle. Science Friday.
  3. Hwang, Seul-Ma-Ro, The Dynastini of the World Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae. Published by Nature & Ecology, Korea, 2011.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Japanese rhinoceros beetle. BBC.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Endrödi S. (1985). The Dynastinae of the World. Dr. W. Junk Publishers.
  6. Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle - Species Profile & Facts.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Karino, K., Seki, N., & Chiba, M. (2004). Larval nutritional environment determines adult size in Japanese horned beetles Allomyrina dichotoma. Ecological Research, 19(6), 663-668.
  8. Iguchi, Y. (1998). Horn dimorphism of Allomyrina dichotoma septentrionalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) affected by larval nutrition. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 91(6), 845-847.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Siva-Jothy, M. T. (1987). Mate securing tactics and the cost of fighting in the Japanese horned beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma L.(Scarabaeidae). Journal of Ethology, 5(2), 165-172.
  10. Wada, Noriko; Sunairi, Michio; Anzai, Hirosi; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Yamane, Akiomi; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu (2014). "Glycolytic Activities in the Larval Digestive Tract of Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)". Insects. 5 (2): 351-363.
  11. 11.0 11.1 A day in the life of a Kabuto-mushi (rhinoceros beetle) lab. The Company of Biologists.
  12. Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma). Beetle Identifications.
  13. W.T.F. Japan: Top 5 Japanese pet kabutomushi beetles 【Weird Top Five】.