經驗主義ging1 jim6 zyu2 ji6英文empiricism)係種哲學主義,屬知識論嘅理論,強調知識係由經驗而嚟。呢種主義嘅代表人物係英國哲學家約翰洛克

基本定位 編輯

睇埋:知識論

根據廿世紀打前嘅西方哲學思想,人嘅體驗可以嚟自兩大來源[1]

  1. (外)感官,即係包括視覺聽覺味覺嗅覺同埋觸覺嘅感覺,畀人能夠感受周圍嘅世界;
  2. (內)心靈內部嘅思緒

响最基本上,經驗主義主張知識主要-甚至完全-係嚟自 1 嘅,而理性主義(rationalism)就啱啱相反,主張知識主要-甚至完全-係嚟自 2 嘅[2]

實證科學 編輯

 
想像有位化學家响度做化學實驗。做實驗嗰陣時,研究者要用五官睇實驗結果,從而得到知識。
睇埋:實證科學哲學同埋科學方法

實證科學(empirical science)睇重嘅係靠感官係噉對周圍世界作出觀察甚至做實驗(涉及研究者郁手做某啲操作,再睇吓操作會產生咩影響[3]),嚟達致係噉增進自己嘅知識。

例如現代科學實會跟從嘅科學方法(scientific method),就會跟以下噉嘅步驟嚟求知[4]。想像而家想研究物體嘅自由下墜

  1. 根據手上已知係真嘅事實,諗一啲理論出嚟(「基於打前嘅知識,我推測地球上嘅物體冚唪唥都會受到某股力影響),呢啲理論好多時係用數學模型嘅方式嚟表達嘅(「而一件物體受嗰股引力,可以用我提出嘅呢條式計...」);
  2. 跟手就要諗吓呢柞理論會做點樣嘅預測(「如果我提倡呢條式係正確嘅,理應會觀察到噉噉噉嘅結果...」);
  3. 然後就做實驗同觀察攞數據,驗證吓個理論嘅預測係咪真確(「而個實際嘅實驗結果係...」);
  4. 如果數據顯示,個理論係做唔到準確嘅預測嘅話,就要一係根據攞到嘅數據睇吓個理論要點改先可以令佢做到準確啲嘅預測,一係就要諗新理論取代舊理論

-上述嘅過程會係噉重複,直至手上嘅理論同式做到完全準確嘅預測為止-於是人嘅知識就有得持續噉發展,做到愈嚟愈準確嘅預測。响廿一世紀初,包括物理學化學生物學經濟學等嘅實證科學,都係主要靠科學方法嚟做嘅。

因為噉,經驗主義廣泛噉畀人認為係現代科學哲學根基[5][6]

睇埋 編輯

話說有一日,有一位數學家、一位物理學家同一位工程師坐火車遊蘇格蘭

工程師望出窗口,見到一隻黑色嘅綿羊,大聲講:『睇吓!蘇格蘭啲綿羊黑色㗎喎!』
物理學家望出窗,更正工程師講嘅嘢:『嚴格嚟講我哋淨係知,蘇格蘭有最少一隻黑色嘅綿羊。』
然後數學家望出窗,更正物理學家講嘅嘢:『嚴格嚟講我哋淨係知,蘇格蘭有一隻綿羊係身體最少一邊係黑色嘅。』

——笑話,講嘅係工程學、自然科學數學嘅諗嘢方法係幾咁唔同[7]

編輯

  1. Locke, J. (1847). An essay concerning human understanding. Kay & Troutman.
  2. Rationalism vs. Empiricism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  3. Hinkelmann, Klaus; Kempthorne, Oscar (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley.
  4. Godfrey-Smith 2003, Chapter 14: "Bayesianism and Modern Theories of Evidence".
  5. Achinstein, Peter, and Barker, Stephen F. (1969), The Legacy of Logical Positivism: Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  6. Fischer, M.R.; Fabry, G (2014). "Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education". GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 31 (2): Doc24.
  7. A Mathematician, A Physicist and an Engineer..., Northwestern University,原版英文:"A mathematician, a physicist, and an engineer are riding a train through Scotland.
    The engineer looks out the window, sees a black sheep, and exclaims, "Hey! They've got black sheep in Scotland!"
    The physicist looks out the window and corrects the engineer, "Strictly speaking, all we know is that there's at least one black sheep in Scotland."
    The mathematician looks out the window and corrects the physicist, " Strictly speaking, all we know is that is that at least one side of one sheep is black in Scotland.""

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