動物學心理學等領域上,粵拼waan2英文play)係指一種特別嘅行為。一般嚟講,「玩」嘅正式定義係泛指一啲冇乜特定目的、純粹因為覺得過癮而做嘅行為,例如係一個人喺得閒嗰陣時為求過癮而做出打機踢波或者畫畫等等嘅行為都算係屬於唔同種類嘅「玩」。除咗之外,好多動物都有玩嘅行為,例如就好興喺唔肚餓嗰時玩獵食,殺咗隻獵物之後唔食[1]

玩嘅體現:一隻喺度玩波(上)、一班人喺度玩扯大纜(中)以及係一間博物館展示嘅玩具(下)

玩對於童年嚟講相當重要。動物學上嘅研究發現,無論係乜嘢物種,動物通常喺幼年期嗰陣會花最多嘅時間嚟玩,一旦到咗成年期,用嚟玩嘅時間嘅量就會下降[2]。喺人類細路當中,適量嘅玩對學習發育嚟講不可或缺:細路會通過玩嚟學同人合作、處理衝突、語言同埋思考等嘅重要技能[3]。而事實係有多份研究試過量度一個細路細個嗰時花幾多時間玩,跟住睇吓啲細路喺青春期嘅成長歷程,呢啲研究發現,細個嗰陣玩得少得滯嘅青少年患上心理病機會率比較高[4]

喺人類當中,玩呢種行為係好多文化產物嘅起源:玩具泛指俾人用嚟玩嘅物品,而遊戲就係指跟規則嘅玩[5];喺廿一世紀嘅社會,玩具生產遊戲製作都係龐大嘅產業,例如係喺 2020 年,淨係美國電子遊戲市場就經已值成 604 億美元咁多-每年都有好多人係噉喺度創作新嘅遊戲[6]

定義

 
約翰·赫伊津哈嘅相

起源

對於玩嘅科學性研究始於 1944 年。當時荷蘭歷史學家約翰·赫伊津哈(Johan Huizinga)出版咗《遊戲人》(拉丁文Homo Ludens)一書,討論玩呢種行為响唔同文化族群當中嘅呈現。赫伊津哈佢係噉樣定義「玩」嘅[7]:p. 13

英文版:"Summing up the formal characteristic of play, we might call it a free activity standing quite consciously outside 'ordinary' life as being 'not serious' but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner."
粵文翻譯:總括玩嘅形式特性,我哋可以將玩稱為一種自由嘅活動,明顯同「一般」生活唔同嘅係「唔認真」,但同時又會令玩嗰個人極度同完全噉入迷。玩係一種唔涉及物質回報同賺取利潤嘅活動。(一場)玩會喺佢時間空間上嘅界限之內跟住固定規則有秩序噉進行。

赫伊津哈呢個定義俾人話同遊戲設計上嘅「魔術圈」(magic circle)概念相似-魔術圈係指玩嘅活動進行嘅空間,魔術圈內嘅人會進入特殊心理狀態,令佢哋喺一段時間內沉醉於隻遊戲嗰度[8]

動物學定義

喺赫伊津哈之後嘅學者有進一步研究玩嘅行為,而且仲有喺以外嘅動物物種身上觀察到玩,令到對玩嘅研究進入動物行為學(ethology)嘅範疇。一般嚟講,喺廿一世紀初嘅動物行為學上,「玩」呢種行為俾人定義為具有五大特徵,如果觀察到有個行為有齊嗮呢五大特徵,嗰個行為就可以算係「玩」[2]:p. 70-78

  1. 放鬆:個行為係喺隻動物處於放鬆狀態嗰陣-環境入面冇獵食者等會對佢造成威脅嘅嘢-發生;可以睇埋心理壓力(psychological stress)同埋皮質醇(cortisol)。
  2. 自發(spontaneous):玩嘅行為會令隻動物感到過癮,所以隻動物會自發(唔使特登俾乜嘢誘因)噉做出玩嘅行為;順帶一提,對於「快感」呢家嘢要點樣概念化,可以睇吓多巴胺(dopamine)同強化(reinforcement)等嘅概念;
  3. 唔必要:玩嘅行為並唔能夠直接噉幫助隻動物現時喺生存同繁殖上嘅需要;
  4. 唔認真:玩嗰陣嘅行為同「認真」嘅版本有些微嘅差異,例如人(或者第啲動物)喺玩打交嗰陣,會做出類似打交嘅動作(例:捉住對方同埋向對方出拳),但正路嚟講,佢哋唔會做某啲「認真想令對方受傷」嗰陣會做嘅動作(例:向對方出拳,但喺自己拳頭臨掂到對方身體前一刻收手,以免真係傷到對方);
  5. 重複性:個行為有重複性,但唔係次次做到完全一個板,例如一個人練拳嗰陣向唔同方向出拳,或者一個人喺度練習跳舞嗰陣跳一柞唔同但相似嘅舞步

動物學家用以下一句嘢嚟總括上述嘅定義[9]:p. 9

英文原文:"Play is repeated behavior that is incompletely functional in the context or at the age in which it is performed and is initiated voluntarily when the animal (or person) is in a relaxed or low stress setting."
粵文翻譯:玩係一種重複性嘅行為,(玩嘅行為)喺佢發生嘅情境或者年紀下係唔完全噉有功能性嘅,並且係隻動物(或者個人)處於放鬆或者低(心理)壓力下嗰陣自主噉做嘅。
 
一隻喺度玩個波,佢可能會對個波做出有攻擊性嘅舉動,但唔會好似對付真嘅獵物嗰陣噉真係出手攻擊。

分類

用上述嘅定義嘅話,玩可以分做好多類[註 1][10]

  • 感覺運動型玩(sensorimotor play / locomotor play [2]:p. 84)涉及重複噉做某啲動作,幫到隻動物手熟習一啲重要嘅動作。喺一個人學(例如)踢足球或者跳舞嗰時,老師一般會要求個學生係噉重複做出某啲動作;正路嚟講,個學生會愈做愈熟手,而且呢啲動作好多時都好講求體力同平衡力,所以重複噉練習做呢啲動作幫到手提高個人嘅體力同平衡力,增強身體嘅某啲肌肉,而呢點幫到手保持身體強健以至減緩老化造成嘅認知功能衰退[11],亦有研究指適量嘅感覺運動型玩幫到提高細路喺讀書嗰陣嘅專注力[12];喺動物學研究方面,有研究試過(例如)去動物園觀察年幼嘅短吻鱷,發現呢啲短吻鱷喺有水池同斜坡嘅裏面重複而且冇明顯目的噉特登由斜坡瀡落水[13]
  • 社交玩(social play)指隻動物同同類之間做出一啲對生存繁殖嚟講重要嘅行為,但明顯唔係嚟真。人類嘅細路喺兩歲之前經已曉同照顧者互動,而人類細路嘅社交玩喺過咗兩歲之後複雜度會明顯噉提高,例如 3 至 4 歲嘅細路會開始曉成大班細路噉進行社交玩(而兩歲前嘅細路頂櫳都淨係會兩三個一齊玩),而呢種社交玩嘅過程俾人有助於細路仔學同人相處;社交玩嘅行為喺有社會性嘅動物身上好常見,例如有動物學家試過觀察到由人養嘅年幼短吻鱷之間做出類似求偶嘅行為,但佢哋無意真係交配-研究者認為噉係反映呢啲短吻鱷喺度「練習」求偶禮節[13][14]
    • 角色扮演(role play)涉及一個人或者一班人扮演某啲佢哋喺現實生活當中唔會扮演嘅角色;例如係細路玩煮飯仔噉,就係角色扮演嘅一種。呢種玩對於訓練細路仔嘅想像力創造力有幫助,喺人類當中由 3 歲左右會開始出現[15]。可以睇埋角色扮演遊戲(RPG)。
    • 打鬧玩(rough-and-tumble play / play fighting)指有競爭性同粗魯嘅玩,例子有好多細路(尤其係男仔)當中見到嘅玩打交[16]。除咗要用體力之外,打鬧玩仲涉及相當複雜嘅人際交流-打鬧玩要求參與者一路唔好嚟真出手,先至可以保持喺「玩」嘅狀態(如果有其中一方出茅招真係郁手打人,噉場打鬧玩就會變成真係打交),所以打鬧玩必然要求一定嘅合作性,而一旦有個細路喺打鬧玩途中真係郁咗手,同佢玩嘅細路就需要判斷佢係錯手定係有惡意;研究指因為呢啲緣故,打鬧玩相當有助於細路發展同人相處嘅技巧[17][18]
  • 平行玩(parallel play)可以話係社交玩嘅相對,指兩個或者以上嘅個體各自獨立噉玩,彼此之間可能留意到對方做緊啲乜,但唔會有互動,彼此之間唔會影響對方嘅玩嘅進行。例子有幾個細路喺同一間房入面各自喺自己張枱嗰度玩積木[19][20]
  • 物體玩(object play)指隻動物一路玩一路用自己身體嚟玩弄外界嘅一啲物體。物體玩包括將物體郁去自己想要嘅位置(例:砌積木)、用啲物體玩扮嘢(例:用積木嚟扮砌建築物或者用公仔扮照顧細路),物體玩容許細路嘗試唔同類嘅動作,俾學者指能夠幫細路學習解難[21];物體玩喺人以外嘅動物身上都可以睇得到,例如有動物學家試過喺動物園入面觀察到人養嘅短吻鱷重複、冇明顯目的噉喺度將一個波推嚟推去或者扮攻擊個波[13]
    • 建造玩(construction play)涉及隻動物操控自己身邊嘅物體嚟建造某啲結構,例如係細路玩積木或者係大人玩砌模型等都屬於呢種玩,呢類玩能夠訓練一個人嘅空間能力[22]
  • 玩扮嘢(pretend play / make believe)涉及「扮到好似某件物體或者某個人係第樣嘢噉」嘅玩,例如一間用積木砌出嚟嘅並唔係一間真嘅屋,但個細路喺玩嗰陣扮到好似間積木屋係間真屋噉(既係物體玩又係玩扮嘢);又或者係玩煮飯仔,班細路扮到好似自己係一個家庭嘅成員噉,但佢哋未必真係同一個家庭嘅成員(既係社交玩又係玩扮嘢)。喺年紀大少少嘅細路當中,玩扮嘢可以複雜到涉及一大班個體進行表演戲劇等嘅活動。喺玩扮嘢嘅過程裏面,細路要展現想像力(明明物體 A 同物體 B 係兩樣嘢,但將 A 想像成 B)同埋留意唔同事物之間嘅抽象相似性(一間積木屋唔係一間真屋,但兩者都有屋頂等嘅特徵)。因為噉,玩扮嘢俾人指對於認知發育嚟講好重要,而且透過對「邊個扮乜角色」等嘅談判過程(例:「我想喺套話劇入面扮演主角」)仲會涉及同人相處嘅技能[25][26]。睇埋心靈理論
  • 語言玩(language play)指對語言嘅玩:喺人類當中,兩歲嘅細路多數都或多或少噉有運用語言嘅能力,佢哋會有能力用語言嚟玩,簡單嘅例子有造句子或者講笑話等嘅行為,都可以算係語言玩,而語言亦可以用嚟輔助第啲形式嘅玩,例如係細路喺踢波嗰陣用語言傾踢波用嘅策略[27]。睇埋語言發育

同發育嘅啦掕

 
兩個細路喺度好開心噉玩緊。
睇埋:發育心理學同埋認知發育

喺廿一世紀初嘅發育心理學當中,玩俾人視為發育嘅重要一環:玩呢種行為似乎根深柢固,喺好多動物當中都見得到;早喺 1960 年代,就已經有研究發現細個嗰陣玩得少得滯會對一個人嘅發育造成不良嘅影響,例如發現一個細路玩得少得滯同大個嗰時犯罪正相關[28];打後又有研究者用動物嚟做實驗,嘗試睇吓唔俾啲年幼嘅動物玩會做成乜嘢效果,發現玩得少得滯會對年幼嘅社交能力同認知能力造成負面嘅影響[註 2][29]。玩可以幫細路建立多種有用嘅能力,例如打鬧玩就俾人指有助細路學合作同埋應付衝突[16],而玩扮嘢就俾人指因為要求細路思考唔同事物之間嘅抽象相似性而有助訓練思考能力[25]

1989 年嘅《兒童權利公約》(Convention on the Rights of the Child)就有噉樣講[30]

英文版:"Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts."
粵文翻譯:各人應該認同細路唞同休閑、玩同埋參與啱佢哋歲數嘅康樂活動嘅權利,以及自由噉參與文化同藝術活動嘅權利。

運動同發育

運動係一種重要嘅玩。研究指,鼓勵細路透過各種嘅活動郁動身體-包括各種嘅團隊運動跳舞以至單純用攀爬架等嘅設備郁動-有好多好處[31][32]。除咗提高細路嘅肌肉力量同運動控制(motor control;指腦部指揮身體各嚿肌肉)嘅能力之外,研究仲發現:

... 等等[37][38]。除咗細路之外,得閒做玩性質嘅運動對大人老人家嘅健康都一樣有利[39]

幫助 ADHD

睇埋:玩耍治療

過度活躍症(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,簡稱「ADHD」)係一種精神障礙,患者會專注力不足,容易分心。有 ADHD 嘅細路好多時都會因為喺學校唔專心而响學業上遇到困難[40],而有研究指,適當嘅玩能夠幫助有 ADHD 嘅細路。有用大家鼠做嘅研究指,玩嘅行為能夠令啲大家鼠減少 ADHD 症狀同提升啲大家鼠對周圍環境嘅警覺性[41];又有研究指,唔曉玩嘅大家鼠會出現「唔識做適當嘅社交行為」、「唔識控制情緒」、「對心理壓力反應勁得滯」、以及「唔識預測同伴嘅郁動」等嘅症狀-而呢啲症狀俾人指同 ADHD 有唔少嘅相似性[29]

因為噉,喺廿一世紀初嘅發育心理學同相關領域當中,有唔少專家開始提倡適當嘅玩會係幫助有 ADHD 嘅細路嘅關鍵,並且開展咗對於「具體嚟講,點樣嘅玩先可以最有效幫助有 ADHD 嘅細路」嘅研究[41][29],而呢啲領域嘅心理學家亦開始嘗試用玩耍治療(play therapy;指用玩嚟做嘅心理治療)嚟處理 ADHD [42]

體質概念

內文:體質概念

認知心理學同相關領域嘅學者提出咗體質概念(corporeal concept)嘅諗法:呢啲學者指出,有一啲概念係所謂嘅體質概念,即係透過身體郁動先會學得識嘅概念,例子有距離軟硬同埋「尖定倔」等等。對體質概念嘅學習唔係齋靠語言就做到嘅:人工智能(AI)等領域嘅研究證實咗,學行路等嘅基本動作查實係極之複雜嘅-「教電腦做邏輯推理」呢家嘢喺廿世紀經已基本上搞掂,但教機械人(例如)行路到咗廿一世紀初都仲係大問題;神經科學上嘅研究又表明咗,人嘅小腦(cerebellum;負責微調運動控制嘅一個腦區)嘅神經細胞數量大過腦嘅其餘部份嘅總和,不過小腦喺容量上只係成個腦嘅 10% 左右;呢啲咁多嘅研究結果表示,「微調運動控制」呢家嘢所涉及嘅資訊量好大,唔係用一般嘅語言(無論自然語言程式語言)描述就可以教得到嘅[43]。喺玩嗰陣,一個細路會係噉郁嚟郁去,就算係畫畫捉棋等比較靜態嘅活動都會涉及一定嘅郁動,等佢有大量機會係噉重複做出行路、或者拎嘢等嘅各種基本郁動,令佢最後能夠熟習呢啲生存必需嘅動作[44][45]

 
一班細路喺度學踩單車;佢哋會係噉做出「嘗試令架單車前進」嘅動作,慢慢噉學識要點先可以令架單車保持平衡

呢啲學者進一步指,體質概念唔淨只幫細路學做生存基本動作,仲有助進階嘅思考:概念係一啲需要集結大量事例先可以形成嘅心智表徵,例如一個人睇咗大量「有」嘅物體之後喺入面形成「」嘅概念;按同樣嘅道理,細個嘅細路玩嘅途中會喺環境裏面郁嚟郁去,佢哋會(例如)望到環境入面嘅物體同自己之間嘅距離係噉變化,令佢哋腦入面充滿咗大量「唔同物體以唔同速度郁會點變」相關嘅記憶片段,從而喺學識用語言之前就有咗「距離」嘅概念,而呢樣嘢會幫助佢哋第時理解更加進階嘅物理概念(可以睇吓牛頓力學)。呢啲學者亦主張,同樣嘅現象喺第啲動物身上都可以觀察到[46][47]

同文化嘅啦掕

 
埃及一班細路喺度玩個氣球

玩係普世文化通則(cultural universal):世界各地嘅人無論語言文化,都會有玩嘅行為,就算係喺科技經濟上冇咁先進、冇(例如)遊戲機同量產型嘅玩具嘅地區,細路都曉自己攞環境入面嘅石仔、水同樹枝等嘅物品嚟做玩具嘅代替品[48],例如研究有觀察到剛果民主共和國嘅細路用嚟扮整嘢食玩煮飯仔[49],又有研究試過觀察到巴西一啲窮地區嘅細路將腰果波子噉樣玩[50]

一般嚟講,無論係喺世界邊個地方,細路花嚟玩嘅時間都會多過大人,不過唔同地區嘅人喺「大人點樣睇細路嘅玩」呢點上可以有一定嘅文化差異,而且唔同文化體可能會鼓勵唔同類型嘅玩[51],例如有研究指西人比較傾向鼓勵啲細路獨立噉玩,而東亞嘅人就比較傾向鼓勵細路彼此之間合作噉玩[52];除此之外,唔同嘅文化體喺「大人有幾參與細路玩」上都有差異,例如某啲地區同族群父母比較常會參與仔女玩,而且玩起上嚟會同啲細路打成一片[51]

因為玩嘅普世性,世界各地嘅人都會創造同玩有關嘅文化產物。同玩有關嘅文化產物主要有以下呢啲:

玩具

內文:玩具

玩具(toy)係指俾人用嚟玩嘅架生。玩具可以係由人特登設計嚟俾人玩嘅,例如公仔扭計骰‎滑板積木等嘅物品都係由人專登設計嚟做玩具嘅;另一方面,一件玩具可以本身有第啲用途,但玩嗰個人發揮自己嘅想像力,用件嘢嚟玩,例如本身可以用嚟寫嘢畫嘢,又成日俾人攞嚟摺成飛機[53]。特登整嚟玩嘅玩具呢家嘢歷史悠久,可以追溯到去公元前 3,000 年嘅印度河文明,而到咗今日,玩具經已係人類最重要嘅文化產物之一,有好多人甚至會攞玩具嚟收藏[54]

「攞有第啲用途嘅物品做玩具」呢種行為就更加古老,喺人以外嘅動物身上都觀察得到。動物學家試過觀察由人養嘅年幼黑猩猩,發現年幼黑猩猩有類似人類細路噉嘅行為:佢哋發現年幼嘅黑猩猩好興執起環境入面嘅樹枝,然後佢哋會將啲樹枝攞嚟做抱等嘅動作-好似當正啲樹枝係一個臊孲子噉;同時佢哋亦發現,成年嘅黑猩猩乸好少可會噉樣玩,而做咗阿媽嘅黑猩猩乸完全冇噉樣嘅行為。年幼黑猩猩乸嘅呢種行為俾人話好似人類細路(尤其係細路女)攞公仔嚟玩嗰陣嘅行為噉[55]

喺廿一世紀初嘅人類社會,玩具生產係一個大產業,喺 2020 年,淨係美國嘅玩具市場估計經已值成 255 億美元咁多[56]玩具設計(toy design)係一門高度技術化嘅領域,做呢行嘅人需要具備工程學細路心理學等領域嘅知識,能夠設計出細路仔會鍾意之餘又能夠有效率噉量產(指大量生產嗰陣成本唔會高過利潤)嘅玩具[57]。新科技仲帶嚟咗聰明玩具(smart toy)嘅發展:聰明玩具泛指內置微型電腦而能夠展現一定程度嘅人工智能嘅玩具,所以一件聰明玩具有可能(例如)按照玩緊佢嗰個細路嘅行為嚟調整自己,並且令個細路玩得更加過癮,簡單例子有曉做自然語言處理(指教人工智能處理語言嘅技術)同細路講嘢嘅公仔(可以睇吓 Furby 等嘅玩具)[58][59]

 
一柞木造嘅玩具

遊戲

內文:遊戲

遊戲(game)係源自玩嘅另一種重要文化產物。同玩具唔同嘅係,遊戲有一定嘅規則同埋定輸贏條件,會要求玩家思考點樣喺遊戲規則限制之下,最大可能噉達到自己嘅目的[60][61]。遊戲好多時(但唔一定[62])仲有競爭性-好多遊戲都涉及多過一個玩家,要玩家各自噉選擇自己嘅策略(每個玩家手上有乜策略揀由規制話事),並且嘗試打低其他玩家,例如象棋團隊運動以及各種各樣嘅射擊格鬥電子遊戲等等,都屬於有競爭性嘅遊戲[63][64]

一隻遊戲好多時仲會有美學(aesthetics)嘅部份[65],包括咗隻遊戲嘅配樂圖像以及係設計師嘗試向玩家呈現嘅一個虛擬世界等(睇吓電子遊戲)。原則上,呢啲部份唔係必要嘅,但美學能夠有效噉提升玩家嘅投入程度,例如有遊戲設計學者指,適當嘅美學仲可以幫玩家手記住隻遊戲嘅規則:例如係中國象棋噉,如果中國象棋當中每一隻棋都係用嚟命名嘅,玩家就要死記住「甲呢隻棋俾對手食咗就即刻輸」嘅規則;相比之下,如果中國象棋用佢現有嘅命名方法,玩家要記嘅就變成「而家打緊仗,將軍俾對手食咗就即刻輸」-後者喺直覺上合理,所以對於玩家嚟講通常會比較容易記憶[66]

遊戲設計(game design)係遊戲研究嘅一個子領域[67],研究點樣設計遊戲-包括咗圖板遊戲紙牌遊戲以至電子遊戲。遊戲設計師會制定一隻遊戲嘅規則同設計隻遊戲所用嘅美術風格,並且務求係設計出好玩、商業上賣得到錢嘅遊戲。廿一世紀初嘅遊戲設計會用到電腦編程人工智能等領域上嘅知識,係一個高度專業化嘅領域[68]

 
德州話事啤有一定嘅規則,而且有競爭性。

遊樂場

 
一個兒童遊樂場入面嘅滑梯
內文:遊樂場

遊樂場(playground / play area),有陣時又會叫兒童遊樂場,係指俾細路玩嘅室外地方,會有各種俾細路玩嘅設備,例如蹺蹺板韆鞦滑梯呀噉。遊樂場呢家嘢源於 19 世紀尾,當時嘅發育心理學界開始重視討論童年早期(3 到 5 歲)嘅教育,於是開始諗吓可唔可以建立多啲俾細路自由噉玩嘅空間,而為咗想俾細路多啲時間郁動身體同探索,發育心理學家諗出咗遊樂場呢條橋-建立有特別設備嘅地方,俾細路可以安全噉跑跑跳跳同玩,形成咗遊樂場[69]

遊樂場常見嘅設備有以下呢啲[69][70][71]

... 等等。值得一提嘅係,喺廿一世紀嘅世界,「遊樂場要點設計」成為咗一門學問:例如有研究指,又大又開放、得一個區域嘅遊樂場容易出現「比較有攻擊性嘅細路霸住嗮啲嘢」嘅情況,所以對於冇咁有攻擊性嘅細路嚟講,有多個子區域嘅遊樂場會比較有效噉鼓勵到佢哋玩-細路心理學教育學方面嘅學者為咗想確保唔同嘅細路都可以有效噉玩,而開始對遊樂場嘅設計作出深入嘅思考[72]

第啲物種嘅玩

 
一隻貓喺度將佢捉到嗰隻老鼠掟嚟掟去。
 
一隻喺度玩公仔。

動物行為學上亦有研究玩。喺呢啲研究上,研究者要面對「點樣定義玩」嘅問題:對人做嘅心理學研究可以向受試者問問題,但人以外嘅動物絕大多數都唔曉用語言同研究者溝通,研究者淨係可以靠觀察動物嘅外顯行為;所以研究玩嘅動物行為學家就要首先諗清楚「一個行為要點先算係玩」呢樣嘢。喺廿一世紀初嘅動物行為研究當中,研究者一般會將一個行為同响同一個物種當中嘅「認真」版本比較,嚟睇吓個行為算唔算係玩;舉個例說明,家陣有隻,一隻認真噉想獵殺老鼠嘅貓正路會用最短嘅路線有咁快得咁快殺死隻老鼠(對生存嚟講重要嘅認真版本),但喺某啲時候,一隻貓會用各種唔係咁有效率嘅方法攻擊隻老鼠,而且捉到隻老鼠之後會放佢走再嚟過(對生存嚟講唔重要嘅非認真版本);喺前者嘅情況下,隻貓喺度認真獵食,當隻老鼠係嘢食,而喺後者嘅情況下,隻貓喺度玩緊隻老鼠,當隻老鼠係玩具[73]

喺動物當中,玩一定程度上可以話係地位嘅展現:玩定義上係喺隻動物唔感受到心理壓力嘅情況(唔使憂搵嘢食等生存上嘅問題)先會發生嘅,所以受心理壓力-搵唔到嘢食或者俾獵食者追緊-嘅動物唔會進行玩嘅行為;地位高嘅動物個體比較少(例如)需要憂搵唔到嘢食或者俾地位高過自己嘅個體攻擊,所以一般都會玩得多啲[74]

玩作為準備

內文:玩作為準備

廿一世紀初有所謂嘅玩作為準備(play as preparation)假說。動物行為學家留意到,唔同物種玩起上嚟都唔同,而一個物種嘅玩傾向似佢哋生存上要做嘅嘢:

  • 好似獅子熊人等嘅獵食者嘅玩傾向涉及佢哋唔認真噉追逐、咬、推同攻擊佢哋玩緊嘅物體-即係話佢哋玩嗰陣嘅行為似「唔認真嘅獵食」,有助佢哋提高自己攻擊同殺獵物嘅能力;
  • 好似鹿斑馬等俾獵食者獵食嘅動物嘅玩傾向涉及大量嘅同跳-即係話佢哋玩嗰陣嘅行為似「唔認真嘅逃走」,有助佢哋提高喺有危險嗰陣走佬嘅能力;
  • 社會性(sociality)嘅動物會玩打交嚟睇吓邊個好打啲,靠噉建立群體內嘅優勢等級(dominance hierarchy;指一個群體內用社交互動嚟確立地位分級);

除此之外仲有實證性嘅研究發現,涉及郁動嘅玩有助年幼嘅獼猴運動控制能力上嘅發育[75]。因為上述呢啲研究,有動物學家就提出「玩作為準備」嘅諗頭-主張玩係一種心理功能,令動物喺得閒(唔使憂搵嘢食或者避開獵食者)嘅時間練習對自己生存嚟講重要嘅行動,間接提高佢哋生存嘅能力[74]

有動物學家響應玩作為準備假說並且指出,玩會教動物等結果性(equifinality):呢啲動物學家指,玩唔認真,喺玩嗰陣遇到失敗都唔會有乜嚴重嘅後果,所以玩容許一隻動物試做唔同嘅行動,用唔同嘅方法解決同一個問題,例如練走佬嗰陣用唔同嘅走佬路線,但喺呢種情況下,隻動物唔係真係俾獵食者追緊,所以大可以試吓打前未試過嘅走佬路線,加深自己對「走佬」呢樣嘢嘅理解(等結果性),甚至有機會搵到比之前嘅走佬路線更加有效、但前所未知嘅走佬路線(睇返玩作為準備)[74][76]

動物神經研究

有動物學家仲有研究玩對動物嘅神經系統嘅影響:有研究者指,玩可以幫手修整腦部神經細胞(neuron)之間嘅連結;喺好多哺乳類動物(包括人類)當中,隻動物喺啱啱出世嗰陣,個腦塊大腦皮層都會有過多嘅神經細胞,而隨住隻動物發育,個腦會按所受嘅外界刺激做「修剪」(睇埋突觸修剪),即係啲多餘冇用嘅神經細胞會萎縮死亡,令大腦皮層變得更加有效率;有實證性嘅研究發現,細個嗰陣玩得少得滯嘅成年大家鼠中側前額皮層(medial prefronal cortex;一個對計劃思考重要嘅腦區)會好似年幼大家鼠嘅噉雜亂無章[74]

進化論解釋

 
一個人腦立體模型腦部嘅各種特性可以受遺傳因素影響。

進化心理學(evolutionary psychology)係用進化論解釋點解人會有某啲行為嘅一套理論。根據呢套理論,如果現代人類普遍有某種行為,噉應該表示呢種行為喺人類進化嘅過程當中有相當嘅適應性,所以先能夠通過進化嘅考驗留存到落嚟:

  • 一隻生物身上嘅每一個基因都可以引致隻生物有某啲特徵,基因會影響隻生物嘅生理特徵,又可以透過影響神經系統嘅結構等嘅特徵嚟間接影響心理同行為;
  • 如果一個基因令帶有佢嘅動物個體比較大機會做出對佢生存繁殖有利嘅行為,噉呢個基因會因為帶住佢嘅個體比較有機會生存繁殖而更加有可能留存落嚟;
  • 相對嚟講,引致一隻動物做出對生存繁殖不利嘅行為嘅基因就會走向滅絕。

因為噉,經過長達千百萬年嘅物競天擇(natural selection)過程,淨低落嚟嘅基因應該多數都係對生存繁殖有利嘅[77][78]

有學者主張,玩呢種行為可以用進化心理學解釋:原則上,玩係有代價嘅-喺玩嗰陣時,隻動物警覺性會下降,喺野外嘅話會提升佢受獵食者攻擊或者受傷嘅危險,而且玩會消耗能量;由物競天擇嘅角度思考嘅話,玩呢種行為實係會令隻動物得益,所以先會通過物競天擇嘅考驗留存到落嚟,而且仲要普遍到喺多個非人類物種身上搵得到。實證研究指,玩好多時能夠幫手提高隻動物將來嘅表現,例如有研究就發現,得閒打吓機能夠改善一個人嘅手眼協調[79],又或者有研究指踢波同跳舞等講求體力嘅活動能夠令個人更加健康同減緩隨年紀發生嘅認知衰退[80],而貓得閒玩打獵能夠提升自己嘅打獵技巧,令到自己將來打獵更加成功-玩打獵嘅行為有助一隻貓提升自己將來生存嘅能力,對於貓呢個物種嚟講係進化上有利嘅(可以睇返玩作為準備);即係話對一隻動物嚟講,喺適當時候玩對佢長遠嘅生存嚟講有利,所以整體上,只要個物種嘅認知系統有機制令佢哋識分乜時候應該玩乜時候唔應該,玩呢種行為係喺進化上有利嘅[1]

註釋

  1. 呢啲類好多都係唔互斥嘅,所以一個玩行為可以屬多過一個類。
  2. 呢類研究因為人道理由而唔可以喺人身上做。

睇埋

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